Monday, December 30, 2019
Introduction The acronym DNA in the science world is well known. Many would even be able to say what it stands for: Ã¢â¬Å"Deoxyribonucleic AcidÃ¢â¬ . What is not as well known is who discovered DNA and what went on behind the scenes. Early life and Education Born in London on July 25, 1920 to a well-known Jewish family, Rosalind Franklin was noted for her cleverness and outspokenness. She was sent to St PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s GirlsÃ¢â¬â¢ School which was known for its strict and demanding academics, which included amongst its subjects, physics and chemistry. School friends later recalled that she was Ã¢â¬Å"best in science, best at maths, best in everything.Ã¢â¬ http://www.livescience.com/39804-rosalind-franklin.html RosalindÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢s father wanted her to go into the line of social work, but at age fifteen, she had decided to become a scientist. In 1938, aged 18, she graduated from Newnham College at Cambridge. Career leading up to major discovery RosalindÃ¢â¬â¢s first job (1938) was with the British Coal Utilisation Research Association. Her work there contributed to the war effort as she did investigations into the structures as well as uses of graphite and coal. Her discoveries were used to develop gas masks which helped in the safety of BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s soldiers. In return for her efforts in this line of study, Cambridge University in 1945 conferred on her a Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry. Rosalind next worked in Paris at the Laboratoire Central with Jacques Merling honing in on the science of X-rayShow MoreRelatedFor this assignment, I chose Ã¢â¬Å"The Origin of Modern HumansÃ¢â¬ by Roger Lewin as my book to read for800 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFor this assignment, I chose Ã¢â¬Å"The Origin of Modern HumansÃ¢â¬ by Roger Lewin as my book to read for my book report. Roger Lewin is a British award-winning science author and writer of 20 books. He was employed at New Scientist in London for about nine years. He went to Washington, D.C. to write books and other pieces for science for ten years as news editor. The book by him that I chose, in 201 pages, this book explained answers to questions like where and when modern humans first appeared, what featuresRead MoreThe Origin Of Species By Charles Darwin1689 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhat is evolution? Are we really related to monkeys? What does religion have to say about the theory of evolution? These are questions that science is still trying to figure out. The simplest answer for the first question is that evolution is decent with modification. This means that, for example, the first humans used their wisdom teeth since they would eat hard and rough foods such as raw meat, nuts, leaves, etc. Now, humans don t use those teeth anymore because we have softer foods, and evenRead MoreCharles Darwins Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection Essay1675 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGalapagos Finch and their bills were adapted for particular diets. Darwin amassed these and other data including observations on variability in domestic animals (for example, dogs) which had been brought about by generations of selective breeding. As well as drawing on his own observations, Darwin drew from the work of Linnaeus, Cuvier, Hutton, Lyell, Malthus and Lamarck. In the hierarchial classificatory system of Linnaeus there is a tacit acknowledgement of relatedness, for example, species belongingRead More The Impact of Ancient DNA Discovered in Siberia Essays1411 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Impact of Ancient DNA Discovered in Siberia For many decades, there has been an overwhelming curiosity about what life was like before humans ruled the earth - back when life on land, off land, and even the very land itself was very different than it is today. Pieces of this puzzle have been discovered all over the world, ranging from perfectly preserved skeletons at the bottom of bodies of water to fragments discovered in vast deserts. Due to the conditions of the ancientRead MoreThe Problem Between Science and Religion1289 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesScience and religion have always been in opposing viewpoints, historically. Science has a mentality that is based off of knowledge, observation, and experimentation. However, religion has no factual proof of anything, it is solely based off of faith and feelings. The problem between these two subjects is that one has factual evidence and one does not. Science is able to explain the laws of gravity - if an item is dropped it will fall. Religion is able to explain a single persons experience with aRead MoreThe Human Genome By Ridley1617 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgenome and then go on to introduce discoveries, discussions and findings concerning the human species that led us to the knowledge we had at his present time of publication in 2001. These discussions range from the beginning of life, Luca and RNA World Hypothesis discussed in chapter one, to natural selection and immortality in chapter 14, to the concept of free will and the argument of nature versus nurture in his final chapter. These are all very important topics within the book because they helpRead MoreDarwin s Theory Of Natural Selection1638 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe process in which, according to DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of evolution, organisms that are better adapted to their environment tend to survive longer and transmit more of their genetic characteristics to succeeding generations, than do those that are less well adapted. The following section will cover aspects on which DarwinÃ¢â¬â ¢s theory was transformative on his society, and also the general feelings of his contemporaries towards his work. Joseph Hooker, a lifelong friend and contemporary of Charles RobertRead MoreThe Debate Of Evolution And Evolution2337 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pageswhy I believe the science of evolution and proving my belief in science. One of the biggest controversies among humans is where we come from. People often ask how we got here or how we became what we are today. It is important to understand both sides of the argument, creationism or evolution. The idea of evolution is beyond human evolution and spans into our views of modern day science. Fossil evidence continually shows that the theory of evolution, introduced to the world by Charles Darwin,Read MoreWhy Eugenics Is A Violation Of A Human s Rights1749 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEqual Rights for Equal People As quoted by Nelson Mandela, Ã¢â¬Å"to deny people their human rights is to challenge their very existence.Ã¢â¬ In the past century, humans have been experimenting and debating the use of eugenics, which is the science of improving the human race through controlled breeding in order to increase the occurrence of desirable, heritable characteristics (Mankiller). Although eugenics is supported by many, one could argue that eugenics is a violation of a humanÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. In the UnitedRead MoreWhy Teaching Intellingent Design and Creationism in Schools and not just Evolution Isnt a Good Idea1887 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesstudents in our schools. Most of these arguments stem from nothing but pure ignorance on the part of the person arguing for intelligent design to be taught in the school. They make arguments that the theory of evolution is full of holes, and that science teachers donÃ¢â¬â¢t reveal the disputation between evolution and intelligent design and also that evolution is h idden and protected from evaluation or judgment by non-believers. Out of the number of arguments that I have witnessed, the last one is by far
Sunday, December 22, 2019
Social Media Networking Technologies Introduction The potential of social media to significantly improve the performance of enterprises by accelerating collaboration, communication and creating a greater level of knowledge sharing is seen across a myriad of commercial, educational and government implementations. The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the use of two social networking technologies that the university can use to accelerate and accentuate their learning objects. The strengths and weaknesses of two social networking technologies are evaluated, in addition to an analysis of how they will impact the Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC) of existing university IT investment. Social Media and Networking Technologies Contribution to Education The cornerstones of long-term learning are autonomy, mastery and purpose. The use of electronic scaffolding as a means to enable autonomy, mastery of learning programs in general and the use of social media specifically shows significant pontifical for higher education institutions (Najjar, 2008). The technologies chosen for the university are designed to allow for very precise scaffolding of educational content while also allowing for rapid collaboration and communication across departments and between students and instructors. The first social media platform is a campus-wide intranet that will give students the ability to collaborate and communication 24/7 with each other and instructors, while also having aShow MoreRelatedSocial Media and Networking Technologies: University Applications722 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesSocial media and networking technologies: University applications Increasingly, universities are using social networks to create a more effective orientation for the freshman class. Universities are using email, Facebook, and Twitter to inform students of their acceptance and to welcome them to the new class. Freshman can friend and get to know their roommates through Facebook long before the first days of school. They can get to know one another as people, commiserate about their fears and challengesRead MoreSocial Networking and Japanese Children1056 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBackground Social networking is not new, but really a part of human culture ever since prehistory. However, social networking to the nth level, globally and through the Internet, is clearly a late-20th, early 21st century, phenomenon. Social networks are social structures in which there are ties between individuals. These individuals form clusters of like-minded interests, commonalities, and/or cultural communities. Modern social networking sites began to become extremely popula r when two thingsRead MoreSocial Networking Is Beneficial For Students And Grown Ups1002 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswith social networks The issue that will be discussed has to do with social networking. Social network is highly important because it is used on a daily basis in our surroundings. Technology has progressed throughout the years, and has created many opportunities for students, businesses, and adults to succeed. Almost everyone in the world has access to the Internet or soon will have access to the Internet. This topic is important because many have the image/ belief that social networking is badRead MoreIdentifying Social Networking Strategy And Technology That Can Boost Up Their Occupancy Rate, Repeat Purchase And Customer Loyalty1724 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespurpose of this research is not to evaluate how many hoteliers vigorously using social media strategy, comparatively is to examine the area and objective of the issue why some hoteliers donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand and grasp the importance of social networking as a new tool of communication with its consumers or guests. Recommending solution to this issu e that can help different hotelier to implement social networking strategy and technology that can boost up their occupancy rate, repeat-purchase and customer loyaltyRead MoreImpact Of Social Media On Technology1293 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages2015 Impact of social media and technology In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s technological era, internet has engulfed each and every area of the world. Due to rapid changes in technology, people are becoming addicted toward social network and have tremendous affects and influence over the lives of many people. The debate about social networking has emerged all over the world. There are some who are against it but there are also a lot of people who are in favor of it. Since the advent of social networking sites such asRead MoreSocial Networking Is Beneficial For Students And Grown Ups1182 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesto do with social networking. Social network is highly important because it is used on a daily basis in our surroundings. Technology has progressed throughout the years, and has created many opportunities for students, businesses, and adults to succeed. Almost everyone in the world has access to the Internet or soon will have access to the Internet. This topic is important because many have the image/ belief that social networking i s bad, and have debated on what is considered a social network.Read MoreIdentification Of Contemporary Issues Of Hotel Industry963 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdifficult to understand the importance and implementation of Social media strategy for their Business. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Management area issue: Social Networking Marketing and Technology Ã¢â¬ ¢ Introduction: The purpose of this research is not to evaluate how many hoteliers vigorously using social media strategy, comparatively is to examine the area and objective of the issue why some hoteliers donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand and grasp the importance of social networking as a new tool of communication with its consumers or guests.Read MoreThe Positives Of Social Media1570 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPositives in Social Media Social Media use is progressively increasing and has definitely become part of our everyday life. This is occurring because there are so many benefits to using Social Media. As we move along in life people worldwide are beginning to become more reliant on Social Media and different technologies. Social Media is defined as websites and other online applications that enable users or large groups of people to create and share content or to participate in social and professionalRead MoreHow Social Networking Changed Communication?1504 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Social Networking I How has social networking changed communication? The topic I selected to research is social networking and how it has changed communication in all aspects of life. I chose this topic because I am interested in learning more information about social media and how it has affected peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s communication skills. I am curious to discover how each source of social media affects communication. Everyday people use their cellular devices to either text, call, or videoRead MoreSocial Media And Social Networking1485 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIV. Generations in the Workforce The fast paced evolution of social media and social networking has required businesses to quickly adapt to avoid falling behind their competition and their customers. A unique feature of the evolving workplace is that entire corporations are involved, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not only the younger generation or only the experienced generation but rather, it affects everyone. This new frontier adds value in many ways including faster service, more direct customer feedback, as well as
Friday, December 13, 2019
Kevin Van Dam is a professional bass angler. Kevin has always had a love for fishing, but did not start fishing professionally until 1990. Kevin Van Dam may not be a household name to most people, but anyone who enjoys bass fishing has heard of him. We will write a custom essay sample on Kevin Van Dam or any similar topic only for you Order Now Bass fishing is my passion and I look up to Kevin Van Dam, as he is the best in the world in this era of bass fishing. Kevin Van Dam was born on October 14, 1967 in Kalamazoo, Michigan.Growing up in Michigan gave Kevin the chance to fish a lot of different lakes and rivers for a variety of species of fish including trout, salmon, muskies, walleyes, and northern pike. Ã¢â¬Å"You can learn a lot by fishing different species in the diverse variety of lakes and rivers we have in Michigan,Ã¢â¬ Kevin once said when asked about fishing in his childhood. Kevin loved to fish and was in the perfect environment to hone his skills. Although he fished for many species of fish, bass fishing was his favorite.Kevin dominated the tournament circuits, winning the Michigan Bass Anglers Sportsman Society Angler of the Year twice before going pro. Kevin graduated from Otsege High School, and married his high school sweetheart Sherry. Kevin and Sherry settled in their home town of Kalamazoo, and continue to live there today with there twin boys, Jackson and Nicholas. Kevin is a devoted dad and enjoys taking his children fishing and deer hunting. Kevin worked various jobs until deciding to become a professional bass angler at the age of twenty three.Kevin began one of the most successful bass fishing careers ever under shadows of doubt, that he was going pro too young. He soon proved all that doubted his abilities wrong by winning the Toyota Tundra Angler of the Year, and was the youngest ever to win this prestiges title. Kevin also won the Bass Anglers Sportsman Society Angler of the Year title at age twenty five. The Bassmaster classic is the highest regarded title in professional bass fishing, to qualify for the Bassmaster classic you must go through a series of tournaments fished by the toughest anglers in the world.Van Dam has qualified for twenty consecutive Bassmaster classics since 1991, this is the longest running qualification streak in history. He has won the Bassmaster classic three times in 2001, 2005, and 2010. Kevin has fished in two hundred and twenty one Bassmaster events, he has won nineteen, finished second eleven times and finished in the top ten ninety times. Kevin Van Dam is a serious force to be reckoned with in the professional bass fishing world, and is simply nicknamed KVD. He has become a ambassador for the sport as it has grown in public attention, and is now featured on ESPN. Van Dam was awarded the first ever ESPN Outdoor Sportsman of the Year in 2002. KVD was grateful to receive this award, since it was not about his lifetime records which are amazing, but his promotion of the sport. Kevin Van Dam in my opinion and many others is the greatest Angler to pass threw the professional world of bass fishing some may not admit it, but statistically this is true. Kevin is a true role model for young bass anglers today. How to cite Kevin Van Dam, Papers
Thursday, December 5, 2019
APF-PT4-UZN 08 November 2013 SOP NUMBER 10 1.PURPOSE: To provide proper guidance on clearing, disassembling, cleaning, lubricating, reassembling and conducting preventive maintenance checks and services on the M4 or M4A1. To use the army regulations and technical manual when conducting one of the above task. 2.APPLICABILITY: This SOP applies to all 16 personnel assigned to 3rd Platoon, Charlie Company, 2-3 Brigade Special Troops Battalion. 3.REFERENCES: Lubricate order (LO); STP 21Ã¢â¬â1Ã¢â¬âSMCT; TM 9Ã¢â¬â1005Ã¢â¬â319Ã¢â¬â10; and DA Form 2404, Equipment Inspection and Maintenance Worksheet. 4.RESPONSIBILITIES: a)Squad Leaders are responsible for their squadÃ¢â¬â¢s serviceability of their M4/M4A1 carbine and the ability for their squad to pass inspection by the platoon sergeant and arms room. b)Every soldier are responsible to complete three copies of DA Form 2404 for each M4 c)Every soldier are responsible to turn in one copy to the armorer d)Every soldier are responsible to keep one copy for yourself e)Squad Leaders are responsible to give a copy to the platoon sergeant 5. We will write a custom essay sample on Army sop for m4 or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page PROCEDURES: 1)1. Weapons will be checked and cleared prior to disassembly of your weapon. When clearing your weapon, put your weapon on safe if not done so already, and have your battle buddy ensure that the firing chamber is clear. 2)When disassembling your weapon, follow procedures IAW TM 9-1005-319-10 for proper instructions. When disassembly is completed, keep all components in a centralized location so as to prevent misplacing weapon parts. 3)Clean each part with the required weapons cleaning kit provided to you by the arms room. Ensure that all parts are free of dirt, grime, dust, and carbon. 4)Upon cleaning, inspect your weapon to ensure that there are no missing components, cracks, dents, or other discrepancies that would interfere with the weaponÃ¢â¬â¢s operation. Any and all discrepancies will be annotated on DA From 2404, Equipment Inspection and Maintenance Worksheet. f)SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS: Any additional information needed to clarify procedures in the SOP, if necessary.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
By: Chris Reid, Account Manager at Constant Content hip Ã¢â¬â ster /Ã¢â¬â¢hipster/ noun informal Hipsters are a subculture of men and women typically in their 20Ã¢â¬â¢s and 30Ã¢â¬â¢s that value independent thinking, counter-culture, progressive politics, an appreciation of art and indie-rock, creativity, intelligence, and witty banter. ~ The Urban Dictionary Q: How do you drown a hipster? A: In the mainstream. Many jokes have been told about hipsters. Which is interesting, as hipsters donÃ¢â¬â¢t actually exist Ã¢â¬â at least according to them. Call someone a hipster and you will be scolded for your lack of insight and generalization. Because you know, hipsters were only hipsters before it was cool. So how does one create content to reach this very fickle, very Ã¢â¬Å"obscureÃ¢â¬ genre of individuals? A good place to start is taking a look at what makes Ã¢â¬Å"authenticÃ¢â¬ hipsters tick and finding ways to appeal to their unique sensibilities. Here are 8 ways to reach the rare and obscure hipster (and a few jokes Ã¢â¬â sorry in advance, hipster friends): Help them be original Hipsters love to feel novel but sometimes even they need a little help. Make sure your content is unique and, if it is, they are much more likely to read and share it so they can claim to be the Ã¢â¬Å"firstÃ¢â¬ who found it. Ã¢â¬Å"I was a millennial before they became a target demographic.Ã¢â¬ Thrive on apathy and irony This is especially important. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t try to be cool. But if you do, do it ironically. Ã¢â¬Å"Did you hear about the two hipsters who walked into a bar? The first one did it before it was cool, and the second one did it ironically.Ã¢â¬ DonÃ¢â¬â¢t interrupt brunch Generally, donÃ¢â¬â¢t post anything before 12pm. Any earlier and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll undoubtedly catch them while they are at the Ã¢â¬Å"bestÃ¢â¬ undiscovered hole-in-wall breakfast joint around. A: Because he ate his food before it was cool. Understand their struggle Hipsters are nonconformists, valiantly fighting the battle against stuffy corporate culture. Therefore, create content thatÃ¢â¬â¢s quirky, fun and maybe even a bit risky to grab their attention. Ã¢â¬Å"I enjoy being downvoted. It shows that I have a unique opinion.Ã¢â¬ Flash your hipster credentials Talk about how organic, local or homegrown your products are and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have them eating out of the palm of your hand. Hipsters especially value startup, mom-and-pop shops that specialize in quaint handmade goods. Ã¢â¬Å"You drink Starbucks? ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s cool. I pick my own coffee beans so I donÃ¢â¬â¢t abuse 3rd world farmers.Ã¢â¬ Accentuating your businessÃ¢â¬â¢s human side can help to create a more personal, authentic relationship with hipsters. If possible, casually add in some photos of you drinking Pabst Blue Ribbon and/or anything out of a mason jar. Appreciate old is new again Related to your credentials, fixed gear bikes, typewriters and polaroid cameras are essential items for the modern hipster. Use images of these objects as visual confirmation of your hipster knowledge and trendiness. But again, donÃ¢â¬â¢t try to be cool. Ã¢â¬Å"I like mainstream. Because hating mainstream is too mainstream.Ã¢â¬ Induce beard stroking We all appreciate a good beard on a man but hipsters especially pride themselves on them. Therefore, your content needs to be interesting and thought-provoking enough for them to need to stroke their beards while reading. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m not a hipster. Beards are just ironic.Ã¢â¬ Kale, KaleÃ¢â¬ ¦. and more Kale If all else fails, talk about kale, and the many things you can do with kale, and all the reasons why kale is the most important thing in the world. Although you may never meet someone owning up to the title of hipster, itÃ¢â¬â¢s obvious that there are many of them out there. The biggest take away here is understanding that you need a special kind of originality when it comes to hipsters. Content that will engage this group, who are either on the leading edge of cultural trends or a large part of itÃ¢â¬â¢s ironic revival, is a delicate balance of trendiness, mixed with obscurity and laden with sepia overtones.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Fluid Temperature Distributation in Oil Gas Wells Ã¢â¬â Engineering Essay Free Online Research Papers Fluid Temperature Distributation in Oil Gas Wells Engineering Essay Predicting accurate temperature Profiles in flowing wells can improve the design of production facilities in petroleum engineering. Temperature Profiles in wellbore have application in cementing operations, accurate 2-phase flow pressure drop prediction, Gas lift designs. Gas lift design can be enhanced by more accurate prediction of temperature at valve depth. In this way, the valves dome pressure can be set more accurately thereby improving the predictability of valve thorough put. Existing temperature correlations are often inaccurate because they do not consider the effects of different fluids in the annullus and cooling and heating of the fluid resulting from phase change. Rigorous theoretical model are often complex and in convenient. They depend on many variables and require information about fluid composition. This project work describes a method of predicting temperature distribution in a flowing wells. A model is derived from the steady-state energy equation that considers the heat transfer mechanisms found in the wellbore. An extensive data bank of temperatures from 3 wells was used in the model validation. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Title pageÃ¢â¬ ¦ . Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Certification Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Dedication Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Acknowledgement Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦. Abstract Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. CHAPTER ONE Introduction Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦.. CHAPTER TWO Literature Review Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Ã¢â¬ ¦. CHAPTER THREE Theoretical Background and model development Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. CHAPTER FOUR Result of Model Validation CHAPTER FIVE Analysis of Result Conclusion Recommendation References Nomenclature Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C: Computer Programs and Output results CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Heat loss from wellbore fluid depends on the formation temperature distribution. Fluid temperature distribution in wellbore is determined by rate of heat loss from the wellbore to the surrounding formation, which is a function of depth and production/injection time. A model to predict fluid temperature during a steady-state 2-phase flow incorporates a thermal diffusivity solution. Convective and conductive effect is also incorporated in this solution. Ramey and Edwardson et al were the first to present theoretical model for estimating fluid Temperature as a function of depth and producing time. This model is only applicable to single phase fluids flow-because kinetic energy, friction and Joule-Thompson expansion were neglected. RameyÃ¢â¬â¢s work was improved by incoporating the effect of phase charge in fluid injection well. A presentation of excellent model on various resistances to heat transfer between the wellbore and the formation was also constructed by Ramey. An expression for fluid temperature distribution in single-phase flow has the limitation of being applied when multiphase flow is encountered. Interpretation of temperature logs for estimating water and gas injection profile was proposed. Noting, the usefulness, kirkpatrick presented a flowing gradient chart, though simple, lacked generality and accuracy. This inaccuracy and thermal stress failure of casing in steam-injection wellbores, demands a proper understanding of wellbore heat transfer and accurate estimation of flowing fluid temperature. Procedure for estimating wellbore fluid temperature has been suggested, model has been presented as the function of depth and producing time. The problem, however remains that since Kinetic energy and friction was neglected, is therefore only applicable for single-phase flow. Also, the assumption by Ramey of microscopic well radius in solving the temperature formation temperature distribution cannot be defended. Resistances to heat transfer between wellbore fluid and formation, was ignored and consequently rendering the model inaccurate and stream lined. Even qualitative estimation of flow rate from various producing wells depends on establishment of constant temperature different between the wellbore fluid and the formation. RameyÃ¢â¬â¢s method is of limited use especially for estimating flow rate in multiple zones. Fluid temperature distribution in wellbore is very crucial and can be used to estimated flow rate and Gas top Oil ratio in vertical and deviated wellbores. In short a higher flow rate results in a lower temperature drop. A less complex algorithm which avoid complex calculation of overall thermal coefficient has been presented for estimating wellbore fluid temperature distribution which will in -coporate conductive, convective and radiative heat transfer and can be used predict temperature at various depths and production time. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW In recent years, considerable attention has been given to fluid temperature distribution in wellbores. There has been many studies on this subject ranging from heat transfer during two- phase flow in wellbores (Formation Temperature) to wellbore fluid Temperature. And later proposing a unified model for predicting flowing Temperature Distribution in Wellbores. Various aspects of heat transfer between the wellbore fluid and the formation has been studied by many over the last few decades. The usefulness of fluid Temperature measurement was realized as early as 1937 by Schlumberger et al ; Interpretation of temperature log for estimating gas and water injection profiles was proposed by Nowak2 and Bird3 in the early 1950s. Noting the importance, KirkPatrick4 Presented flowing Temperature gradient chart, though simple, lacked generality and accuracy . These deficiency and thermal stress failure of casing in steam injection wells emphasized the importance of proper understanding of wellbore heat transfer and accurate estimation of flowing fluid Temperature. Lesem et al5 and Moss and White6 were the first to suggest procedures for estimating wellbore fluid temperature. However, Ramey7 and Edwardson et al8 were the first present a theoretical model for estimating fluid temperature as a function of producing time and depth. However, both works neglect the effect of friction and kinetic energy. Thereby making them only applicable for flow of single phase fluids. In addition, the assumption of in -finitessimal well radius by Ramey in solving the formation temperature distribution can be unreliable in some cases. The classical method for temperature prediction in wellbore proposed by Ramey coupled the heat transfer mechanisms in the wellbore and transient thermal behaviour of the formation. Temperature equations for the case of injection of either single phase incompressible hot liquid or single phase ideal gas flow were derived. In RameyÃ¢â¬â¢s method, the transient thermal behaviour of the formation was determined by solutions of radial heat conduction problem in an infinite cylinder. The resistances to heat flow in the wellbore due to presence of tubing wall and cement is incoporated in the overall heat transfer coefficient. Griston and Willhite9 extended the application of RameyÃ¢â¬â¢s approach by evaluating the usefulness of steam injection well and taking note of radiative heat transfer during steam injection. Witterholt and Tixier10 employed the influence of fluid flow rate on temperature of the fluid in RameyÃ¢â¬â¢s equation to measure the fluid temperature. Witterholt and Curtis also employed effect of qualitative estimation of flow rate from various producing zones. The method depends on the effect of fluid flow on the inverse Relaxation distance, A, in RameyÃ¢â¬â¢s model for fluid temperature Distribution. This method is of limited use , especially for estimating flow rates from multiple zones, because of its limited accuracy and its dependence on the establishment of constant temperature difference between wellbore fluid and formation. An empirical calculation was developed by Shiu and Beggs for producing wells, to determine the relaxation distance defined by Ramey. This method is actually an attempt to avoid complex calculation of overall heat transfer coefficient and transient heat transfer behaviour of the formation . Since application of RameyÃ¢â¬â¢s equation are restricted to single phase flow in the wellbore, sagar et al extended RameyÃ¢â¬â¢s method for wells with multiphase flow, accounting for kinetic energy effects and Joule-ThompsonÃ¢â¬â¢s expansion. This simplified method is based on field data., all these methods include severe assumption related to the thermodynamic behaviour of the flowing fluids and thus applicable only for limited operating conditions. Alves et al12 presented a unified model for flowing Temperature prediction which can also be applied to producing and injection wells, under single-phase or two-phase gas liquid conditions over the entire inclination angle range from horizontal to vertical wellbores: the diverse application of the aspects of heat transfer in both formation and wellbore necessitated the development of a Rigorous approach. The model below allows computation of temperature at the formation/wellbore interface, when undisturbed formation temperature and wellbore heat flow rate are input. This represents the relationship between wellbore heat loses and wellbore temperature for steady-state, 2-phase flow: where I wellbore fluid Temperature: Expression for variation of fluid temperature with depth has been obtained: where using appropriate boundary conditions on the above, Hassan and kabir13 modeled the expression as a function of well depth and also producing time. CHAPTER THREE THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND MODEL DEVELOPMENT Heat loss experience by the fluid as if flows up the well results in lowering its temperature. As this fluids moves through the wellbore, there is transfer of heat between fluid and the earth due to the difference between fluid and geothermal temperatures. This type of heat transmission is involved in drilling and production operations. This solution would assure that heat transfer to the earth will be unsteady radial conduction and that in the wellbore will be steady state. In other to derive a model which predict heat flow in a 2-phase system (e.g Oil well), it would be necessary to obtain, first, the wellbore fluid energy balance. The temperature difference between the formation and wellbore fluid causes a transfer of heat from the fluid to the surrounding formation with decrease in fluid temperature and depth. At any depth formation temperature would vary with radial distance and production time. However, when steady-state flow has been attained, there is constant fluid temperature at any given depth due to turbulence. Heat loss from fluid, therefore declines with time and is dependent on various resistances to heat flow between the hot fluid in the tubing and the surrounding earth. To derive a model for temperature as a function of depth and time, we must as necessity establish the formation temperature distribution as a function of radial distance and time, given a constant heat flux from the well. For a 2-phase system, first obtained the wellbore fluid energy balance, which would relate the fluid temperature with wellbore/ formation interface temperature and the heat flux, given the overall heat transfer coefficient in terms of well configuration shown in Appendix A. 3.1 FORMATION TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION Assuming symmetry around the heat source or sink (Producing or injection well); In a short time-step, heat flux from wellbore may be assured to remain constant. Then an energy balance of the formation leads to the following partial differential equation derived in cylindrical coordinates for formation temperature variation with radial distance from well and production time: (1) where: Te Ã¢â¬â earth temperature; t time, r Ã¢â¬âdistance measured from the wellbore center is thermal diffusivity. Initial condition is that formation temperature at any depth is constant, leading to : Lim Te = Tei (2) At the infinite or outer boundary, formation is also constant with radial distance. (3) The third boundary condition is derived from the heat flow rate at the wellbore/formation interface which is governed by Fourier Law of heat conduction. Heat flow rate per unit mass of wellbore fluid per unit length of well, dq/dz is given by: (4) rwb- outer radius of wellbore and W is the wellbore fluid mass flow rate. To facilitate solution and have a more general applicability of solution, equations 1,3 and 4 are recast in dimensionless variables of rD (dimensionless radial distance)= r/rwb, thermal diffusivity = Ke/PeCe , and tD (dimensionless time =. Equations 1,3 and 4 becomes: (5) (6) (7) I can now introduce a dimensionless temperature, TD, analogous to dimensionless pressure in pressure transient analysis: (8) 3.2 WELLBORE FLUID ENERGY BALANCE An energy balance of fluid for a differential length, dz, for a 2-phase system would lead to the following equation: (9) where gc and J represent appropriate conversion factors (gc= 32.2 lbm.ft/lbf-Sec2, unity in S.I units, dimensionless.) H-fluid enthalpy fluid enthalpy, H, depends on its pressure and temperature, which allows us to write the following expression, for dH/dz: = (10) Cpm is the heat capacity at constant pressure, Cpm where CJ is the Joule- Thompson coefficient. Combining equation (9) and (10), yields: (11) the radial heat transfer between the fluid and the surrounding earth, expressed in overall heat transfer coefficient based on transport phenomena and transient heat transfer. Heat is transferred from the wellbore fluid to the earth overcoming the resistance offered by the tubing wall, tubing insulation, casing wall and cement as shown in fig1. The resistances are in series, and, except for the annulus, the only mechanism of transfer involved is conductive transfer. At steady state, the rate of heat flow through a wellbore per unit length of well, dq/dz, can be expressed: (12) utoÃ ¬- Overall heat transfer coefficient based on tubing Ã¢â¬âinside surface area, 2 to and temperature difference between the wellbore fluid and wellbore/ formation interface (Tf-Twb). Therefore, the heat transfer rate per total mass flow rate W is: (13) the overall heat transfer coefficient based on tubing outside surface area, uto, depends on resistance. In general, the resistance to heat flow through tubing or casing metal may be neglected. Natural convection is the dominant heat transfer mechanism for fluid in the annulus. Resistance through cement layer could be important depending on its thickness. Using the dimensionless temperature, TD obtained in equation (8), we may write the expression for heat transfer from the wellbore/formation interface to the earth: (14) combining (13) and (14) to eliminate wellbore temperature, Twb, yields: (15) 3.3 WELLBORE FLUID TEMPERATURE The next is to obtain an expression for variation of fluid temperature with well depth by substituting the expression for dq/dz from equation (15) into (11): (16) letting, (17) expressing (16) in terms of A, yields: (18) if the undisturbed formation temperature is assumed to vary directly with depth, thus, Tei= Teibh gTZ (19) Where gT represents the geothermal gradient and Teibh is the undisturbed (Static) formation temperature at the bottom hole: Equation (19) can also be applied when different geologic formation are encountered. At various depths with differing values of geothermal gradient. In this case, the computation may be divided into a number of zones with constant geothermal gradient being applied to each zone. If it is assured that the test two terms in equation (18) does not vary with well depth, equation (18) becomes a linear differential equation: (20) Where (21) Equation (20) can be integrated for a constant, A, and boundary conditions: (a) For a producing well at bottom hole, Z=Zbh (b) Fluid and earth temperatures are generally known Tf =Tfbh and Tei =Teibh giving the expression for fluid temperature as a function of well depth and production time: (22) the value of the parameter, ,in equation(22) would depend on a number of variables, such as flow rates, gas/liquid ratio, wellhead pressure. The calculation of is shown in Appendix A. The earth temperature at wellhead can be assumed to be equal to the surface fluid temperature (i.e. Tewh =Tfwh). The geothermal gradient, gT can be determined by dividing the temperature drop of the formation and the fluid by the measured depth (i.e(Tformation Ã¢â¬âTsurface )/depth acceleration due to gravity, g and the appropriate conversion factors, g both has the value of 32ft/sec2 and 32.17 lbf-ft/1bm-sec2 J and Cpm are respectively the mechanical equivalent of heat, 778ft-1bf/Btu and specific heat capacity at constant pressure. =900 for vertical wells. It must be noted that the variable depths are measured in negative values which is a generally accepted convention. Having set these constraints: equation (22) can further be simplified to yield: simply: (23) j=1,2,3,Ã¢â¬ ¦.. J, mechanical equivalent of heat, has a value of 778ft-1bf/Btu and A is the thermal Relaxation distance, in feet. From equation (17) shown below: Aj = The overall thermal coefficient Uto can be computed using the model below ;for differential length and a unit mass flow rate; for tubing: (24) and for casing flow; The equation is shown in appendix (B) The inverse relaxation distance, A, can be estimated using equation (17) but bearing in mind the existence of equality between dimensionless temperature, TD and transient heat conduction time function for the formation (earth) developed by Ramey: (25) is the thermal diffusivity of the earth, ke/CePe, ke, Ce and pe are the formation conductivity, heat capacity and earth (formation) density. And rto , the tubing Ã¢â¬âinside radius. Using equation (23), the wellbore fluid temperature, Tf can be estimated. The working is shown in Appendix A. Shown in Chapter four are data of 5355-ft deep flowing well used to validate my fluid Temperature calculation. The assumption of f(t)=TD does not affect the solution at large times. Besides the equality of f(t) and TD is not surprising because both functions attempt to describe the temperature distribution in formation based on the same differential equation. CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 RESULTS OF MODEL VALIDATION The following data were used to test the efficiency of the derived model in predicting temperature at any depth and production time. Temperature data from Amerada Hess of west Texas. 4.1 THE FLUID TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION Fluid temperature distribution at any depth can be computed using the relations below: where A= the former equation can easily be converted to deviated well, for vertical wells ( =900 )Sin 90=1. and geothermal gradient, gT gT = (Tebh-Ts)/ZSin for deviated wells where = angle of deviation , g and gc are equivalent and acts as a conversion factor. Variables Data report by Sagar etal Amerada Hess cooperation Nafta Gas of Yugoslavia Chevron Escravos Nigeria N 12 15 18 Tebh(F) 108 237.2 172 Ts(F) 76 50.1 89.5 ?(ft2/hr) 0.04 0.04 0.04 Zbh(ft) 5355 6,792 8250 Ke(Btu/hr/ft/F) 1.4 1.4 1.4 dto(Inches) 3.375 2.875 3.875 GLR(scf/bbl) 68.2 APIG (gravity) 34.3 35 30 Yg 1.05 0.75 0.79 dti(Inches) 2.875 2.375 3.375 pwh(Psia) 113 174 215 dwh(Inches) 9.0 7.5 12 dco(Inches) 7.5 5.8 8.304 dci(Inches) 7.0 5.5 8.0 Kan(Btu/hr/ft/F) 0.383 0.383 0.383 Kcem(Btu/hr/ft/F) 4.021 4.021 4.021 tp( hours) 158 165 160 qo (BBL) 59 6.8 1720 qw (BBL) 542 13.3 236 qg (SCF) 41000 3100 1899000 rw 101 1.o 1.0 CHAPTER FIVE ANALYSIS OF RESULTS While the figure 1 shows a very good agreement between the model prediction, measured temperature and Hassan Kabir. The 2 data points nearest to the surface (0 and 500ft depth) shows higher fluid temperature than are predicted the model can accurately predict these temperature if a higher conductivity of 1.4 Btu/hroF is used for the formation near surface. The model allows conduction and convection as heat transfer mechanism for fluid in the tubing casing annulus . The deviation between measured and predicted temperatures is more at the surface and near surface and reduces as depth increases and eventually meet at the bottom hole. This is because gas expansion occurs as multiphase fluid flows up to the surface and that enhances cooling due to Joule-Thompson and Kinetic energy effect and provides room for heat exchange. As depth increase, pressure and temperature increases. The concordance among the proposed Hassan Kabir multiphase prediction with measured temperature and the correlation developed is shown figure 1. and figure 3 for fluid temperature distribution in wellbores and represented in the coloured legend on the profile. The three models in each of the three profiles :(Hassan kabir), the developed model and measured temperature matches as depth of wellbore increases. It could not tally at the surface and 500ft depth with measured temperature due to Joule Thompson cooling as multiphase fluid flows up and pressure is reduced giving rise to gas expansion. The percentage error between the model prediction and that of measured temperature (at 0-500ft.) is 4.1%. Therefore, using correlation developed we must make a correction of predicted temperature at the surface by multiplying it by 4.1% and subtract from the predicted temperature. Example 1: Fluid temperature @ 0ft = 91.64F corrected measured temperature =91.640*(1-4.1/100) = 87.88F There is a high agreement between predicted fluid temperature and that of Hassan Kabir prediction. The profile matches as depth increases and almost coincides showing that there is high agreement amongst both models. Figure 2. is a temperature profile for a flowing gaslift well, the predicted temperature of model and that of Hassan Kabir for multiphase flow agrees with tend to twist. This is as a result of gas injection at 4200ft, this point of gas injection. The temperature is lowered due to presence of gas, gas expansion and Joule-Thompson cooling. WHY FLUID TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION ? ? Accurate temperature prediction is necessary in the effective design and execution of cementing programme choosing suitable cement slurry properties: placement and setting time during completion and worker operations ? It is important to know the wellbore fluid temperature before gas lifting operation at various depths to enable us know the temperature at various value depth. ? Also temperature profile of a well must be known before enhanced or secondary recovery: Steam injection. Gas and hot water injection among others. ? Packer design and selection. ? To enable in designing of Logging tool and for log interpretation ? Prediction of Wax and scale depositions in production tubing ? Determination of region in the tubing and casing liable to Corrosion. Wellhead and production equipment design CONCLUSION An algorithm is presented for estimating wellbore fluid temperature. It allows wellbore heat transfer by conduction and convection and evaluate the formation by assuming that fluid temperature at the wellhead is equal to the earth temperature at wellhead. Here, the importance of convective heat transfer is demonstrated. The need for radiation is eliminated due to unavailability of fluid emissivity which depend on surface finish and view factor among other variables. The algorithm can easily be applied to deviated wells. This algorithm was developed from basic thermodynamic principles to predict temperature profiles in two-phase and multiphase flows in wells. The simplified model represents an extension of the latest multiphase fluid temperature distribution correlation. The developed model eliminates the need to estimate fluid temperature at wellhead. And to iterate for overall thermal co-efficient at various depths. RECOMMENDATION I recommend that when using the model. Accurate temperature at the near surface (0-500ft) would be determined by: accurate temperature = Calculated temperature* (1-% error) This would account for the Joule-Thompson cooling and expansion of gas and pressure reduction that occurs as a result of upward flow of multiphase fluid in wellbore. NOMENCLATURE A Inverse relaxation distance, ft Cpm Heat capacity of wellbore fluid, Btu/lboF Ce Heat capacity of the earth, Btu/lboF Cj Joule-Thompson coefficient, dimensionless d Pipe diameter, ft f(t) RameyÃ¢â¬â¢s solution for wellbore earth/interface temperature, dimensionless g Acceleration due to gravity, ft/sec2 gc Conversion factor, 32.2lbmft/lbf sec2 gT Geothermal gradient oF/ft H Fluid Enthalpy Btu/lb K Conductivity, Btu/ft oF Ka Conductivity of Annulus, Btu/ft oF Kcem Cement Conductivity, Btu/ft oF Ke Formation conductivity, Btu/ft oF q Heat flow rate from or to the wellbore, Btu/hr r Radial distance of the wellbore, ft T Temperature, oF TD Dimensionless temperature Tei Formation temperature at any given depth and radial distance from well,oF Teibh Formation temperature at Bottom hole, oF TeWh Formation temperature at wellhead, oF Tf Wellbore fluid temperature, oF W Total mass flow rate, lbm/sec Z Variable depth from surface, ft Zbh Total measured depth from surface, ft J Mechanical equivalent of heat, 778ft-lbf/Btu Kan Thermal conductivity of annulus material, Btu/hr-ft-oF PWh Wellhead pressure q0 oil flow rate, STB/D qg Gas flow rate, SCf/D qw Water flow rate, STB/D uc Heat transfer coefficient of casing ut Tubing heat transfer coefficient of casing U Overall heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hr.ft2 oF Yg Gas specific gravity Yo Oil specific gravity Yw Water specific gravity Dci Casing Internal diameter Dti Tubing Internal diameter Dto Tubing external diameter Dco Casing outside diameter Dwb Diameter of well bore GREEK LETTERS Heat diffusivity of earth ft2/hr Specific gravity of produced gas Oil specific gravity dimensionless Water specific gravity dimensionless Parameter which combines Joule-Thompson and Kinetic Energy effects. Wellbore inclination with horizontal, degree fluid viscosity, Cp Density, lbm/ft3 Earth density, lbm/ft3 REFERENCES Sagar, R.K., Dotty, D.R., and Schmidt, Z: Ã¢â¬Å"Predicting Temperature Profiles in a flowing well,Ã¢â¬ Paper SPE 19702 presented at 1989 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, TX Oct.8 Ã¢â¬â11 Hassan, A.R. and Kabir, C.S.: Ã¢â¬Å"Heat transfer during 2 Ã¢â¬âphase flows in wellbores Ã¢â¬âpart II- wellbore fluid TemperatureÃ¢â¬ Hassan, A.R. and Kabir, C.S.: Ã¢â¬Å"Heat transfer during 2 Ã¢â¬âphase flows in wellbores Ã¢â¬âpart I-Formation TemperatureÃ¢â¬ Ramey, H.J. Jr.: Ã¢â¬Å"wellbore Heat transmission,Ã¢â¬ JPT (April 1962) 435 Trans AIME, No. 225. Alves, I.N. Alhanati and Shiham, U.: Ã¢â¬Å" A Unified Model for predicting flowing Temperature distribution in wellbores and pipelines Ã¢â¬Å"SPE 20632. G.J Plisga, Ã¢â¬Å"Temperature in wells,Ã¢â¬ Sohio Alaska Petroleum company. Farouq Ali, S.M.: Ã¢â¬Å"A comprehensive wellbore steam/water flow model for steam injection wells,Ã¢â¬ Paper 196337 presented at the SPE California Regional meeting, Ventura, CA, April 8 Ã¢â¬â10,1987 Shiu,K.C. and Beggs, H.D.: Ã¢â¬Å" Predicting Temperatures in Flowing Oil wells,Ã¢â¬ J. Energy Resources Tech, (March 1989 1- 11) Lesem, I.B. et al.: Ã¢â¬Å"A method of calculating the Distribution of temperature in flowing Gas wells,Ã¢â¬ Trans, AIME (1957) 210,pg 169. Nowak,T.J.: Ã¢â¬Å"The Estimation of water injection profiles from Temperature surveys,Ã¢â¬ JPT (Aug. 1953) 203,Trans AIME,198. Gany R. Wooley; Ã¢â¬Å"Computing Downhole temperature in circulating, injection and production wellsÃ¢â¬ . SPE, Enertech Engineering and Research Co. Willhite, G.P; Ã¢â¬Å"Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient in steam and Hot Water injection WellsÃ¢â¬ , JPT (May 1967) 607-615 Schlumberger, M., Doll, H. G., Ã¢â¬ËTemperature Measurement in oil wells,Ã¢â¬ J. Inst. Pet. Technologist (Jan, 1937) 13, 159 Kick Patrick, C.V: Ã¢â¬Å"Advance in Gaslift TechnologyÃ¢â¬ , Drill. Prod. Prac. (March 1959) 24 60. Moss J.T and White, P.D; How to calculate Temperature Profile in a Water Injection Well,Ã¢â¬ Oil Gas Journal. (March 9, 1959) 57, NoII, 174. Willterholt, E. J. andd Tixier, M.P.: Ã¢â¬Å"Temperature Logging in Injetion Wells,Ã¢â¬ Paper SPE 4022 presented at the 1972 SPE Annual fall Meeting San Antonio, TX Oct. 8-11. Edwardson, M.J et al: Ã¢â¬Å"Calculation of formation Temperature Disturbances caused by mud circulation, Ã¢â¬Å"JPT (April 1962) 416-26; Trans., AIME, 225. APPENDIX A There are certain parameters we must compute before finally calculating the wellbore fluid temperatures, Tf , These parameters are itemized: a. Geothermal gradient, gT b. , dimensionless correction parameter which depends on Joule-Thompson expansion and GLR c. dimensionless transient heat conduction time function of the formation, f(t) = TD d. The overall thermal transfer coefficient, Uto e. The inverse Relaxation distance, A , ft. f. Using the model (23) to estimate the wellbore fluid temperature. a. GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT, gT The undisturbed temperature of the formation, Tei, is generally assumed to vary linearly with depth.Thus, Tei=Teibh-gTZÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. A1 where gT represents the geothermal gradient and Teibh is the undisturbed formation temperature at the bottom hole, Z gT = (Teibh Ã¢â¬â Tei)/ZÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.A2 Numerically, using the data in chapter 4 gT = (108oF Ã¢â¬â 760F)/5355ft Geothermal, gT = 0.0059757oF/ft b. DIMENSIONLESS CORRECTION PARAMETER, This parameter depends on Joule-Thompson expansion and cooling effects and can be estimated by empirical correlation for a unit mass flow rate W=1Lb/sec: =-0.002978+1.006X10-6Pwh+1.906X10-4W-1.047X10-6GLR-0.3551gT+3.229X10-5API +0.004009YgÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..A3 Gas Ã¢â¬âto-liquid Ratio, GLR = GLR = qg /(qo+qL)=41X103scf/(542+59)STB GLR =69.374 scf/STB Thus, upon substitution into A2, can be estimated: c. THE SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF TUBING FLUID, Cpm In other to compute the fluid temperatures at various depths, we need to compute first the specific heat of tubing fluid which is determined by : Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..A4 where typical values for oil, Cpo and water, Cpw are respectively 0.485 and 1.0 Btu/1bm.oF d. THE MASS FLOW RATE, W The mass fluid flow rate is calculated by: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦A5 where Oil, water and gas flow rates are: qo, qW, qg respectively .Ã¢â¬ APIGÃ¢â¬ is used to represent the API Gravity of oil. e. THE OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT, U During exchange of heat in the wellbore, heat is transfer from earth/formation to the fluid is in two parts: (i) Overall heat transfer for fluid through tubing is given by: (ii) For casing flow, we have: therefore, the overall heat transfer coefficient is thus: or explicitly: f. THE THOMPSON COEFFICIENT, To account for cooling and expansion as a result of gas in the well bore a dimensionless constant, Joule-Thompson correction factor is introduced, computed by Sagar et al : =1.006X10-6Pwh+1.906X10-4W-2.978X10-3-1.047X10-6 GLR+3.229X10-5APIG+4.009X10-3Yg-0.35511gT where PWh, W and gT are wellhead pressure , mass flow rate and geothermal gradient of earth. g. TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION TIME FUNCTION, f(t) from equation (25) f(t)= using the data provided: f(t)=T f(t)= 2.306 h. WELLBORE FLUID TEMPERATURE, Tf Model (23) permits the estimation of the temperature of fluids as a function of depth and producing times. This model is suitable for slide-rule calculation. Where j=1,2,3Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦N Temperature profiles can therefore be obtained at various depths using the thermal conductivity of the earth to be 1.4 Btu/hr-ft-0F Research Papers on Fluid Temperature Distributation in Oil Riordan Manufacturing Production PlanResearch Process Part OneBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesBringing Democracy to AfricaPETSTEL analysis of IndiaOpen Architechture a white paperMind TravelDefinition of Export Quotas
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Retention of College Students in Private Schools - Coursework Example This is a very thorough introduction to the steps and processes required in writing an extensive study on an education-related topic. There are comprehensive notes and references attached to each chapter, and the book could also be used as a textbook in class since there are exercises too. One useful feature is the Ã¢â¬Å"Key ConceptsÃ¢â¬ section which recaps the most important themes and provides definitions that can be used in any dissertation. Chapters 4 and 5 on Ã¢â¬Å"Research Design in Quantitative ResearchÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Experimental ResearchÃ¢â¬ give a lot of good information on how to set up data gathering procedures and how to evaluate the results. Methods such as surveys, interviewing and videotaping are also discussed with some very practical guidelines on how to avoid common mistakes. It is written in a complex and academic tone, but the effort of reading it is rewarded by many insights. Henderson, D. and Henderson, J. (2002) The Retention of Entering and Returning Freshmen enrolled at Florida A&M UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s School of General Studies during the Fall Semesters 1997-2001. Education 123 (1), 210-212. This short paper looks at the importance of the first year in the retention of students at a college with mainly African-American students. It collated figures on students who attended for the first time, and students who had switched their major and made a recommendation for strategies to enhance student retention based on these figures. Some issues were clearly concluded, such as the importance of developmental courses, interdisciplinary classes, advisement on demand and an attitudinal shift by the faculty and staff, but the article did not find ways to deal with variables.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Indias Criminal Justice System and Terrorism - Essay Example IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s criminal justice system has improved a great deal when compared to the system in effect during the fourth century B.C. India during this period had a very strict penal system which involved death and mutilation as punishment for even minor offenses. Nevertheless, there are many improvements to be made in the system so that it will become more effective. A possible improvement could include eliminating corruption within legislation by sharing powers equally among the three branches of government. IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s government can strengthen its criminal justice system by providing more courtrooms and judges to rule and pass sentence upon the increasing number of cases. The judiciary system should ensure that cases are handled in a timely fashion and fairly. That way it would ensure all persons, who have been accused, a right to a quick and fair trial. The threat of terrorism has become a continuous global threat. India should take further measures in the future to prevent further instances by admitting and enforcing stricter laws and penalties against any act of or relating to terrorism. Frankly, this country cannot afford not to be more proactive against this outbreak of national and world wide terrorism. IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s court system declares that a Ã¢â¬Å"criminal justice system could not function without the cooperation of its people.Ã¢â¬
Monday, November 18, 2019
Outlook report for M&S(Marks & Spencer) - Essay Example They are also planning to open up eco-friendly stores for their green credentials. Strategic planning process comprises of an important ingredient of external environmental analysis. Environmental analysis helps ascertain the state of factors internal to the firm which can further be classified as a firm's Strength or Weakness while those external to the firm can be classified as Opportunities and threats. This study of the strategic environment is called SWOT analysis. SWOT analysis facilitates the extraction of strategic information which aids in matching a firm's resources to the environment in which it operates. 1) Acceleration of store renewal programme-M&S have already started investing in their stores and completed about 70% of their modernization programme. They are planning to modernise an additional 10% of space and open up an additional 5.5% of new space in the coming years. With launch of new eco-friendly store, they will be able to cut the down the cost tremendously in the next 5 years. Within one year, they are able to save around 20% of their energy in the store. 2) Private labeled grocery- M&S sells 90% of its own food brands. Despite M&S experiencing difficult trading conditions in their clothing departments, their food halls have continued to run successful business. It consistently offers innovative, high quality and rigorously checked food. 3) Everyday value shop with quality- Making Marks & Spencer a more convenient place to shop, the popular shopping basket items have reviewed prices without comprising with the qualities of the product. Although the company is working according to market price but without hampering their quality and standards. 4) Variety of food products at one stop shop- Marks & Spencer's ready to eat meals are long been famous for their great ingredients. As more of consumer start spending their time in kitchens and would be spending in the next 5 -10 years, they come with new range of 300 ingredients right starting from fresh herbs to bread and cakes-makes easier cooking starting from scratch. 5) Expansion of stores and intensive use of space: Currently in UK, there are 622 stores and 278 international stores all over the world. With the possibility of resurging economy after 2 -3 years, they will be planning to expand their stores in UK as well as globally also. This makes their presence in UK stronger than any other brand. With the current downturn in the economy, they have already started utilizing the floor space for every square foot to its full potential. Selling space will be reallocated to higher growth product areas to maximize returns per square foot. Weakness: 1) Late entrant: With the increasing disposable income of the people and increasing awareness of the people about the healthy and dietary food, Marks & Spencer became a late entrant into this segment. Even talking about the experience of the store and one stop food shop, they had just entered into this segment. This becomes disadvantage for them as last mover. 2) Strong presence in UK- It has strong presence only in UK. It has 622 stores in UK and 278 stores internationally, which
Friday, November 15, 2019
The General Crisis In The 17th Century History Essay The period of crisis that happened in Europe in the seventeenth century was one of the toughest in history. After the process of expansion and growth experienced during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Europe found itself in a deep crisis that lasted nearly a century. A crisis that was characterize by various features, foremost the demographic, because after the late Middle Ages the population had increased steadily; until it stops abruptly in the sixteenth century even to recede in many places. Other reasons that were attributed for causing this crisis included hunger, wars, revolts, politics, plagues and climate changes. Eric Hobsbawn argues that on the big picture, it was economic and social forces that created this mid 17th century crisis. On the other hand, Trevor Roper emphasized that the main causes for this crisis were the religious and political conflict. Although both arguments can be valid and were present in this disaster, I believe that the root causes of this cris is were religious and political differences, which ultimately led Europe to have economic and social conflicts as well. One important example of this crisis is the thirty years war. It was a war that took place in central Europe (especially in Germany) between 1618 and 1648, in which the majority of the great European powers intervened. This war would mark the future if the European continent in the centuries to followÃ Ã . The origin of this war goes back to the Peace of Augsburg, which basically stated that the religion of the ruler of the land will be the religion of the people. This resolved the conflicts between the Catholics and the Protestants for a while, but due to the diverse religions practiced in the German states, it did not solve the underlying religious issues definitively. Just by analyzing the phrases above, we automatically get the sense that it was religious conflicts the root cause of this war. This is confirmed by the event that sparked the war, the revolt in Bohemia. In this revolt, member of the predominantly protestant bohemian legislature threw two catholic government o fficials pot the window, as a sign of protest against the religious policies of the newly elected king, the catholic Ferdinand IIÃ Ã . However, the Catholics defeated the protestants, and this leads us to another example of religion causing the 30 years war; the intervention of the Danish and then the Swedish. This happened because of the fear of these kingdoms that their sovereignty as protestant lands was threatened by the Catholic success in the war, and also because the declarations of the king Frederick V, where he said that all Europe should be back to Catholic. Nevertheless, at this point the Catholics are still winning the war, and this catches the awareness of Cardinal Richelieu, who was the chief minister of King Louis XII of France. From this point on, this religious war becomes political, because even though he was catholic, France decides to join the war and help the Protestants. The reason for this was simple, balance of power; the French felt that Habsburgs hav e gained too much power and they did not want just one great power to control EuropeÃ Ã . This war is a great example of how religious and political reasons shaped this European crisis, and how these events led to the economic and social problems that a war brings, in order to fund the war with money and men. After all, this war was ended with the Treaty of Westphalia; which ironically ended up being like the treaty of the peace Augsburg that stated that the religion of the prince is the religion of the people. The political effects of this war were very traumatic as well, first it weakened the power of the empire, and the individual territories of the Germany gained more autonomy even than before the warÃ Ã . Another problem that rose during this crisis was the war of the three kingdoms. This is another great example to argue that Trevor Roper was correct in explaining the main cause of the crisis. This war happened after England, Ireland and Scotland became united under the power of only one ruler. This was possible because, since Queen Elizabeth of England had no direct heir to her throne, the next in line was James Stuart, the king of ScotlandÃ Ã . So what types of problems this created? First, James was a firm believer of the divine right monarchy, which basically means that he was placed there by god and does not have to report to anyone else. This belief did not bring many problems to other nations; however, the fact that England had a parliament created a lot of political tensions in this era. Expanding upon this, the wealth that the members of the parliament had acquired from the agricultural innovation, the expansion of their land and sheep count, increased this problems e ven more, because they now wanted to match their political power with their economic power. The fact of this happening brings us back to our thesis, and shows a religious problem becoming political, which ultimately becomes social. I argue this because the parliament starts to have power from the times of King Henry, when he needed their approval to separate from the Catholic Church (religion). Years after, this backfires to King James, because it gave more authority to the wealthy parliament, and clash with his ideals of divine right and absolutism (Politics). Subsequently, creating a lot tension and confusion among the people of the three kingdoms, whose laws and taxes kept changing as the power of the monarchy and the parliament would fluctuate (Social)Ã Ã . To further support our point, we can cite the historian Paul Hazard, who coined the term crisis of the European consciousness to define an ideological crisis that could be found in the intellectual ambient of Europe after the wars of religionÃ Ã . This is a valid argument since it is logical to believe that religious conflicts could rupture the emotional stability of a society that is very much influenced by god and religion. The raise and growth of new religions that differed in many matters with ancient Catholicism brought into the map many thinkers that challenged even more the traditional beliefs.Ã Intellectuals such as Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Locke and Newton share a common time, it can even be dated astronomically with the famous Halleys comet of 1680 which allowed Pierre Bayle drafting its Charter, and use this to make fun (in a way) at the Religious superstitions and affirm that knowledge must be constantly proven and updatedÃ Ã . However, this eventuall y created some social problems, since most of the universities and teaching centers were controlled and had the patronage of the church, being either catholic, like the Jesuits, or protestants. This is another example of how religious conflicts (Trevors argument) happened first and the led to social problems (Hobsbawn argument) Possibly the best example of the religious and political causes of this crisis was the glorious revolution. Going back to the origin of the problem, old King James II was a Catholic that had already irritated the parliament by relaxing the restrictions on the Catholics and allowing them to hold positions in public officesÃ Ã . Nevertheless, James was old and next line for the throne was his daughter Mary, a protestant that was married to William of Orange; so the parliament does not really take any action. However, things turn ugly after James II has a son that would mean the continuity of Catholic rule in England, which the parliament would not allow. This caused the glorious revolution, and causes James to escape to France with his son, and William of Orange is invited to be king of EnglandÃ Ã . It is interesting to see how the biggest political problem that King James II had was the fact that he was catholic; once again religion. In addition, the fact that the parliament is the one that invites William to be king summarizes the amount of power that he would have, which as we can see, was very limited. He was given many restrictions, such as the obligation to be an Anglican, he was not allowed to have a standing army, he was not allowed to veto a parliament act and there was no arbitrary arrestÃ Ã . Based on this, comes a liberal social movement that will support the ideas of the parliament in a way, and moves England even further away from absolutism. A leader of this movement is John Locke. We can see in his Two treatises to the government his idea of the natural right to live, which basically states that we all have a right to liberty and the possession of property. Moreover, if the government does not protect the natural right to live of the people, they can reve l and a demand a ruler who does not violate their rightsÃ Ã . Trevor and Hobsbawn use the Fronde in France as another example of the general crisis. It begun because of general discontent of the people. His beginnings were based on the economic crisis and increasing the tax burden generated to address the cost of participation of France in the Thirty Years War. Its most direct cause, however, can be found in the means used by the monarchy to raise taxes. With the arrival of the regent the people expected the monarchy to cut rates, but not so: Cardinal Mazarin thought that France could support the war and did not let up the pressure. In addition, the Parliament of Paris tried to limit the power of King Louis XIV and also the nobility felt threatened by the king and wanted more of a voice in the government. All of the causes of the Fronde have political implications to it. Even If it is argued that the raise of the taxes was a social problem, it was a political decision to raise the taxes for war and specially to actually enter the war, with the ideals of balance of powerÃ Ã . In conclusion, the general crisis was characterized by a series of wars, revolts, decline of population and political and social changes that in many cases could have been avoided if the right precautions would have been taken. However, the fact Europe was undergoing a time political absolutism (at least that is what the rulers intended) and the close relation between church and government, made it impossible to avoid the conflicts. The numerous wars that happened (all for political and religious reasons) aided by plagues and diseases, caused the first decline in the population after the middle ages, therefore creating social and economic problems in the region. This is the reason why I believe that Trevor Roper was right by saying that the root cause of the crisis was political and religious (decisions to go to war, monarchs selected for their religion, etc); which then led to economic and social problem(increase of taxation, price revolution, and decline in population), aggravating even more the situation.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Having worked on both small and large scale internet ventures, as well as in traditional brick and mortar enterprises, I have truly fallen in love with the entrepreneur world of business. Ã Ã I have been the CEO of my own smaller companies and have been an integral part of large scale operations. My professional goal is to become the most effective entrepreneur and manager I am capable of becoming. Ã My sample set of experiences has been both wide ranging and engaging, but a Harvard Business School education will serve to hone my skills and sharpen my ability to think. Ã Ã First and Foremost, an MBA from Harvard business school will help improve my performance as a manager at the basic level of problem solving and thinking. Discovering the unique experiences and perspectives of a diverse student body will undoubtedly alter the way I face and solve problems. A classroom environment that does not take a static format will enhance my ability to think quickly and effectively. Ã Secondly, I feel that a manager's ability to interact effectively with others can make or break a company. Being in a dynamic classroom situation will help perfect these skills of communication.
Monday, November 11, 2019
Ives structure doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really use the true march structure. It has more of a five part sectional that brings back the opening march. Ives uses polytonality and polyrhythm for his music to make it seem like you are in the picture. This adds more energy and power to his pieces. One of the major achievements of the 20th century. He uses quarter tones that fiddlers play off beat. He is familiar with it and compares it to everyday American Life. He uses other music from other pieces and in his Country Band March is nothing but chaos which is done on purpose. 2. Ã¢â¬Å"Appalachian SpringÃ¢â¬ brings a quintessential sound. He makes his music very lively and colorful. Even though his music is very live and colorful, it has a soft side to it as well. He paints a beautiful picture with his music and fits with the choreography of the song. 3. The 3 early 20th century musical forms that were American originals were Hip-Hop, Jazz, and Pop. All 3 continued to grow throughout the 20th century. Hip-Hop is black urban art forms that emerged in NYC in the 70s. It encompasses rap, break dancing, and graffiti. Pop music is derived from rock and roll music. And Jazz was created by the African Americans and blended elements drawn from African music with the popular and art traditions of the West. 4. The movie I watched was the Little Mermaid. The music is an integral part of the movie. Since the movie is about an underwater kingdom, the main song in the movie is Ã¢â¬Å"Under the Sea. Ã¢â¬ There were other songs in the movie that helped make the movie a lot more entertaining to watch. There are parts in the movie where all the creatures dance to songs. I think that Disney movies are like this and that music is a crucial part of all their movies. 5. I think that the practices of sampling is the same as borrowing as long as permission and credit are given. Otherwise it would be considered plagiarism. From my own occurrences, there have been people that I know that borrow samples of songs to use it a remix that they make. If its for a non profit use then permission has to be given. 6. Musique concrete began in France and electronische Musik began in Germany. Musique concrete mainly focused on natural sounds recorded on magnetic tapes. Eletronische Musik created compositions using electronically generated sounds. Digital technology was the evolutions of these approaches in the 1970s with the invention of Fm synthesis.
Friday, November 8, 2019
PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis of the truth through "The Parable of the Cave" is an effective, valid tool to help us analyze our own life and ultimately find the truth. He did this by first analyzing his own life and the fetters and bearers who used shadows to keep him from reaching the roadway to wisdom. It has proved to be an effective assessment not only when he was alive but even up until today. The parable symbolizes manÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle to reach understanding and enlightenment and is a universal and everlasting concept. Plato used the bearers in his parable to symbolize people who control what we see and do, people who hold us back from using our full potential to decide what we want to see for ourselves. An example from modern society would be TV producers or record label executives, ultimately they decide what songs we will sing tomorrow and what shows we will watch. They limit us by allowing only what they want to reach us and penetrate our minds and lives. The fetters were what kept the escaped prisoner in the parable from turning his head and seeking his own truth, as well and new things. They kept him from being able to control what he saw for himself. The naming of objects was another hindrance, because it only caused prejudging and encouraged a closed mind. The fetters, bearers, and naming of objects make it harder to find our own truth, although it is not impossible. As Plato knew then, they exist in everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. Humans have to travel from the visible realm of image making and object naming to the intelligible, invisible realm of reasoning and understanding. The "Parable of the Cave" symbolizes this trek and how it would look to those still in a lower realm. The things our senses perceive as real are just shadows on a wall. Just as the escaped prisoner ascends into the light of sun, as we amass knowledge, we ascend into the light of true reality: ideas in the mind. Yet if someone goes into the light of sun and embra... Free Essays on Issues In Plato's Republic Free Essays on Issues In Plato's Republic PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis of the truth through "The Parable of the Cave" is an effective, valid tool to help us analyze our own life and ultimately find the truth. He did this by first analyzing his own life and the fetters and bearers who used shadows to keep him from reaching the roadway to wisdom. It has proved to be an effective assessment not only when he was alive but even up until today. The parable symbolizes manÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle to reach understanding and enlightenment and is a universal and everlasting concept. Plato used the bearers in his parable to symbolize people who control what we see and do, people who hold us back from using our full potential to decide what we want to see for ourselves. An example from modern society would be TV producers or record label executives, ultimately they decide what songs we will sing tomorrow and what shows we will watch. They limit us by allowing only what they want to reach us and penetrate our minds and lives. The fetters were what kept the escaped prisoner in the parable from turning his head and seeking his own truth, as well and new things. They kept him from being able to control what he saw for himself. The naming of objects was another hindrance, because it only caused prejudging and encouraged a closed mind. The fetters, bearers, and naming of objects make it harder to find our own truth, although it is not impossible. As Plato knew then, they exist in everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. Humans have to travel from the visible realm of image making and object naming to the intelligible, invisible realm of reasoning and understanding. The "Parable of the Cave" symbolizes this trek and how it would look to those still in a lower realm. The things our senses perceive as real are just shadows on a wall. Just as the escaped prisoner ascends into the light of sun, as we amass knowledge, we ascend into the light of true reality: ideas in the mind. Yet if someone goes into the light of sun and embra... Free Essays on Issues In Plato's Republic PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis of the truth through "The Parable of the Cave" is an effective, valid tool to help us analyze our own life and ultimately find the truth. He did this by first analyzing his own life and the fetters and bearers who used shadows to keep him from reaching the roadway to wisdom. It has proved to be an effective assessment not only when he was alive but even up until today. The parable symbolizes manÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle to reach understanding and enlightenment and is a universal and everlasting concept. Plato used the bearers in his parable to symbolize people who control what we see and do, people who hold us back from using our full potential to decide what we want to see for ourselves. An example from modern society would be TV producers or record label executives, ultimately they decide what songs we will sing tomorrow and what shows we will watch. They limit us by allowing only what they want to reach us and penetrate our minds and lives. The fetters were what kept the escaped prisoner in the parable from turning his head and seeking his own truth, as well and new things. They kept him from being able to control what he saw for himself. The naming of objects was another hindrance, because it only caused prejudging and encouraged a closed mind. The fetters, bearers, and naming of objects make it harder to find our own truth, although it is not impossible. As Plato knew then, they exist in everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. Humans have to travel from the visible realm of image making and object naming to the intelligible, invisible realm of reasoning and understanding. The "Parable of the Cave" symbolizes this trek and how it would look to those still in a lower realm. The things our senses perceive as real are just shadows on a wall. Just as the escaped prisoner ascends into the light of sun, as we amass knowledge, we ascend into the light of true reality: ideas in the mind. Yet if someone goes into the light of sun and embra...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Classical and Renaissance Humanities Art Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Classical and Renaissance Humanities Art specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the foremost characteristics of Classical artistic style, associated with Greco-Roman antiquity, is the fact that it is being concerned with the celebration of bodily perfection. This can be explained by the fact that Greco-Roman artists of the era were convinced of the existence of dialectical relationship between the concepts of aesthetic/intellectual finesse, civil virtuousness and the notion of physical health, as such that organically derive out of each other. According to Yalouris (1960): Ã¢â¬Å"(Greco-Roman) statues of gods and heroes exemplified youthful strength and tended to show episodes that emphasized their physical prowessÃ¢â¬ ¦ Simply clad, or naked like the hero, the noble and free citizen was represented by a body of marvelous proportions and calm expressionÃ¢â¬ (p. vii). The earlier mentioned aesthetic feature of Greco-Roman sculptures (and Classical art, in general) appears to be the consequence of the fact that, throughout the course of Classical period of Western history, the continuous development of philosophic thought has not been affected by any form of ideological/religious oppression, whatsoever. In its turn, this naturally prompted Classical thinkers to promote an idea that the physical constitution of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s body is indeed being reflective of his or her mindÃ¢â¬â¢s workings, which is exactly the reason why most survived Classical sculptures simultaneously emanate the spirit of physical strength and intellectual self-confidence. The validity of this suggestion can be well illustrated in regards to the marble sculpture of Ã¢â¬ËSpearbearer Polykleitos of ArgosÃ¢â¬â¢ (440 B.C). As it can be seen on the picture, the depicted Ã¢â¬ËSpearbearerÃ¢â¬â¢ appears to be no stranger to physical exercises. His naked body is being perfectly proportion ate, in anatomic sense of this word.Advertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The expression on manÃ¢â¬â¢s face radiates calmness and the strength of his resolution to remain in full control of its destiny. This, once again confirms the soundness of an idea that Classical art cannot be discussed outside of what happened to historical/intellectual preconditions for this particular artistic style to thrive, such as the continuous progress in variety of empirical sciences (medicine, anatomy) and the absence of ideological obstacles, on the way of this progress. However, the adoption of Christianity by Romans in 4th century A.D. produced a powerful blow on the ideals of artistic Classicism, as these ideals were absolutely inconsistent with the dogmas of newly adopted religion from Middle-East. After all, the very essence of Christian doctrine is being concerned with the Ã¢â¬Ëdes truction of fleshÃ¢â¬â¢ as the pathway to heaven. This was exactly the reason why, after having obtained legal status in Roman Empire, Christians instantaneously preoccupied themselves with destroying what they considered the artistic emanations of Ã¢â¬ËpaganismÃ¢â¬â¢. As it was pointed out by Bourgeois (1935): Ã¢â¬Å"Christianity strived to annihilate the antique Ã¢â¬â classical sculptures were smashed as idols in untold numbers as being too dangerous to the new faith to surviveÃ¢â¬ (p. 7). Therefore, it does not come as a particular surprise why, during the course of Dark Ages, when Christianity enjoyed an absolute dominance in Western intellectual domain, the very concept of art undergone a dramatic transformation. The Classical ideals of bodily perfection, embodied in Greco-Roman antique sculptures, were replaced by the ideal of Ã¢â¬ËChristian humilityÃ¢â¬â¢, which is why the images of Jesus and countless Christian saints, depicted on Catholic and Orthodox icons through 5th-14th centuries, radiate the spirit of physical inadequacy, suffering and death. Nevertheless, once ChristianityÃ¢â¬â¢s ideological grip onto Western societies began to weaken, it resulted in gradual resurrection of Classical aesthetic ideals Ã¢â¬âhence, the artistic/cultural movement of Renaissance, which from French literally translates as Ã¢â¬ËrevivalÃ¢â¬â¢. Just as it used to be the case with Classical Greco-Roman art, Renaissance art celebrates bodily beauty and establishes dialectically predetermined links between individualÃ¢â¬â¢s physical appearance and the extent of his or her existential adequacy. This is the reason why Renaissance artistic masterpieces (particularly sculptures) are not only being anatomically accurate but also charged with the same humanist spirit, as it is being the case with Classical examples of art. The legitimacy of this statement can be explored in relation to MichelangeloÃ¢â¬â¢s sculpture Ã¢â¬ËDavidÃ¢â¬â¢. Whereas; medie val artists used to depict David as having already accomplished victory over Goliath, MichelangeloÃ¢â¬â¢s David is only getting ready to a fight. DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s facial features leave no doubt as to the fact that, prior to beginning to work on this sculpture; Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Classical and Renaissance Humanities Art specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Michelangelo closely studied Greek depictions of God Apollo narrowed skull, particularly high forehead, blond curly hair, protruding chin. The proportions of DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s naked body are close to ideal. Just as it is being the case with Ã¢â¬ËSpearbearerÃ¢â¬â¢, MichelangeloÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËDavidÃ¢â¬â¢ appears to be in perfect physical shape. Thus, it is not only that DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s posture alone provides spectators with the insight on the strength of his resolution to fight Goliath Ã¢â¬â while observing Ã¢â¬ËDavidÃ¢â¬â¢; they get to realize where such his resolution originates. Just as ancient Roman and Greek philosophers, Michelangelo was well aware that healthy spirit could only reside in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s healthy body. While referring to this particular MichelangeloÃ¢â¬â¢s artistic work, Murray and Murray state: Ã¢â¬Å"Michelangelos choice of subject was not the battle itself but nude studies of the warriors preparing to fight: it was a hymn to the perfection of male beauty and virilityÃ¢â¬ (p. 241). Therefore, there can be few doubts as to the fact that Classical and Renaissance artistic styles are not only being closely related Ã¢â¬â the latter is nothing but logical continuation of the first. The same can be said about many latter Western artistic styles, which have clearly been influenced by Renaissance art, such as Romanticism and Realism. For example, just as it is being the case with Renaissance paintings, most Realist and Romanticist paintings feature perceptual depth, realistic coloring and the anatomic life-likeness of depicted human figures. It goes without saying, of course, that despite Renaissance art being concerned with exploration of the same aesthetic ideals as it used to be the case with Classical art, it nevertheless operates with Christian themes. Apparently, during the course of 14th-15th centuries, the power of the Church was still considerable, which is why such prominent Renaissance artists, such as Giotto di Bondone, Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, had no choice but to utilize Biblical motifs as thematic framework for their art. This artÃ¢â¬â¢s relation to Christianity, however, appears utterly superficial, as the very essence of how of how Biblical fables are being represented by earlier mentioned artists stands in striking opposition to Christian worldview. Therefore, it will only be appropriate to conclude this paper by reinstating once again that, despite the fact that there is a gap of thousand years between the historical periods of Greco-Roman Classici sm and Renaissance, these two periods are being interrelated in rather inseparable manner.Advertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This point out to the fact that the apparent similarity between Classical and Renaissance artistic conventions is not being accidental, but as such that derives out of the very nature of how intellectually liberated Westerners assess the aesthetic significance of surrounding reality. In its turn, this also explains why even today, both artistic styles are being commonly regarded as archetypical of the Western sense of artistic finesse. References Bourgeois, S. (1935) Italian Renaissance sculpture. Parnassus, (7)3, 7-8. Murray, P. Murray, L. (1963). The art of the Renaissance. New York: Praeger. Sporre, D.J. (2009). Perceiving the arts: An introduction to the humanities (9th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. Yalouris, N. (1960). The sculpture of the Parthenon. Greenwich, CT: New York Graphic Society.
Monday, November 4, 2019
Legal Questions - Assignment Example 1) Civil Rights Act of 1964: This legislation ended racial segregation and discrimination in public accommodations, such as schools, hospitals and transport system. It also made it illegal for an employer to discriminate against anyone based on race, color, religion, or sex (Scheb and Stephens, 2011). 3) Voting Rights Act (1965): This piece of legislation gave all Americans the right to vote regardless of race, sex, color, or religion. In addition, it brought to an end the literacy tests. Further, it mandated the U.S. attorney to intervene in case of discrimination. The civil right legislations supplement the Equal Protection Clause in the sense that it protects citizens from all forms of discrimination that the Equal Protection Clause also protects people against. The Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment protects citizens from being denied equal protection of the law by the state. This implies that the state has an obligation to treat every person equally in similar circumstances and conditions (Scheb and Stephens, 2011). Normally, when a police officer suspects that an individual is likely to commit a crime, he is allowed to stop the person, tie the suspectÃ¢â¬â¢s hands in the outer garments, and search if the suspect may be carrying a hidden weapon. This act of stopping and tying and searching a suspect is what is termed stop and frisk (del Carmen, 2012). Reasonable suspicion and probable cause and legal standards used by police officers in the enforcement of law. Reasonable suspicion is the presumption made by a police officer that a crime has committed or is about to be committed. These reasonable presumptions are based on facts and the situation, which are informed by the police officerÃ¢â¬â¢s training and experience. Reasonable suspicion is applicable when a police strongly suspect that an individual has committed a crime or is likely to commit a
Friday, November 1, 2019
Starbucks Corporate Culture - Essay Example More than half of these branches are located in the United States, with the United Kingdom following by far with more than 100 branches (Starbucks Corporation. 2008). The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate culture is one of the most relaxed, and considerate in regard to the community. It is classified amongst the companies where employees are satisfied with remuneration packages and other attached benefits even as companies are suffering due to financial crisis (Reilly, 2008). The company is largely focused on the empowerment of employees through several benefit schemes which assist in career development and improved productivity. Employee retention is enhanced, which contributes to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s overall productivity. The management emphasizes on the improvement of skills amongst the employees through training. They are trained through workshops and other classes that offer essential information on coffee, such as the history of coffee production, customer satisfaction and several other vital subjects aimed at creating employee awareness. These are mandatory classes for new employees in the company (Rose 2002). On top of training, the organization portrays its considerate attention to all employees regardless of their employment terms in regard to whether they are full time or part time. Both groups are entitled to a health and dental benefits, insurance against disabilities, compensation during vacation and leave, programs meant to assist the employees in personal matters as well as personal and financial development (Richards, 2007). All the benefits that employees are entitled to, significantly contribute to organizational productivity. They generate a sense of appreciation amongst them, thereby improving their commitment to the achievement organizational goals. The flexibility of working whereby employees work part time and still get benefits as the full time workers is significant in the enhancement of work life balance amongst the employees. This helps in
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Response - Assignment Example HoggÃ¢â¬â¢s study in 1993 reports the vitality of strategic vision and innovation to the performance of technological telecommunications companies in Europe. Despite the importance of communication within the telecommunication sectors, innovative skills are valuable than the later. Competitive advantage in the market is attainable only if companies possess advanced technological innovativeness. It is fascinating to note that most prosperous entrepreneurs prioritize innovativeness within their firms according Roper Starch Worldwide survey done by Ernest and Young (Belkin 1). Although innovation forms the centrality an organizations success, it is essential to embrace effective communication strategies. Emerging realities for most business implicates the importance of effective communication in coordinating organizations plans. Communication is imperative in relating factors such as global market trends, continual innovation, planning, and technological changes. Most flourishing firms consider the use of all of the above factors in ensuring the success of a business. Experience on organization indicates that effective communication strategies besides coordination of abovementioned strategies also assist in improving corporate relations. Corporate relations assist companies in identifying new innovative strategies for an organization. It is vital that companies not only prioritize innovation but also integrate effective communication in