Saturday, August 31, 2019
The novel Ã¢â¬ËOf mice and menÃ¢â¬â¢ is set in 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s America. The characters suffer from this because of the Great Depression in 1929. This led to many things, for example people losing their jobs. Because of this factor the characters Lennie and George have to travel from place to place looking for a job and a place to live. Also Woman and Black rights did not exist as they were 2nd class citizens, Crook says to Lennie Ã¢â¬Å"Why aint you wantedÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Cause IÃ¢â¬â¢m blackÃ¢â¬ , unlike contemporary America. Also in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s people were discriminated against because they were put before any other person wanting the job. I think the differences between 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s America and todayÃ¢â¬â¢s America shows drastically in this novel by affecting the characters jobs and social lives. Lennie is a very interesting and important character in the novel; he affects all the character but mostly George. He is very forgetful, George says to Lennie Ã¢â¬Å"So you forgot that already did you!!!Ã¢â¬ Steinbeck uses Lennies Ã¢â¬ËforgetfulnessÃ¢â¬â¢ as a way to kill CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife without Lennie knowing. Also Lennie cannot take care of himself, unlike today society cannot provide help for him and if left alone him would slowly die. Also if he was left alone he would not be able to get a job because he would be discriminated against, but with the help of George he has a chance to work if he follows Georges rules, Ã¢â¬Å"If he sees ya work before he sees ya talk, were setÃ¢â¬ . In this quote George is telling Lennie what to do around the boss, Stienbeck makes it clear in this quote how much discrimination there is in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s. George, I think, is the main character in the novel, mainly because he controls the book by helping and telling the characters what to do. He teaches Lennie how to behave to other people, I think if Lennie werenÃ¢â¬â¢t there, George would be depressed and lonely, although George sometimes get annoyed with him, he thinks a lot of him and this is why he was king enough to kindly kill him. Candy is also an important character in this novel and I think she is also very clever. Ã¢â¬Å"Everybody wants a bit of land, not muchÃ¢â¬ she understands what its like to live in a mans world. CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Wife is a very depressed character because she is a 2nd class citizen and once had hopes of becoming famous, Ã¢â¬Å"he was gonna put me in the moviesÃ¢â¬ , her dream disappeared and is now the wife of CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife and has no role and no job in the novel, she also wants children but Curley doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t, and that is what a mans world was like in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s, whatever he says, goes. She gets so depressed for company that she approaches Lennie, I think she does this because she knows that heÃ¢â¬â¢s the only one that will listen to her, this depression leads to her downfall as Lennie accidentally kills her. Crooks is also a very depressed character because in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s blacks werenÃ¢â¬â¢t seen as equals. I think in this novel Crooks is vulnerable to attacks, Ã¢â¬Å"Listen nigger, you know what I can do to you if you open your trap?Ã¢â¬ She can have him killed because in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s woman were in a higher class then blacks, so her word is more reliable in court then Crooks. Crooks is also very wise, he has worked on the ranch for a long time, Ã¢â¬Å"I seen hundreds of men come by on the roadÃ¢â¬ , and says that their dreams never come true its Ã¢â¬Å"just like heavenÃ¢â¬ . Crooks says to Lennie, Ã¢â¬Å"You guys is just kidding yourself. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll talk about it a hell of a lot, but you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t get no land.Ã¢â¬ Crooks like everyone, is lonely. Ã¢â¬Å"A guy talking to another guy and it donÃ¢â¬â¢t make no differences if he donÃ¢â¬â¢t hear or understand, the thing is, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re talkingÃ¢â¬ , this quote shows how desperate Crooks is for company, like CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Wife, he turns to Lennie.
Friday, August 30, 2019
How is racism presented in the novel of Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry? Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry is a novel based in the Southern States of America in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s and deals with the theme of Racism amongst other themes. Racism is being prejudice or discriminating against someone of a different race based on such a belief. Following on from the Civil War, America experienced Ã¢â¬ËThe Great DepressionÃ¢â¬â¢ and it affected everyone, especially blacks.Mildred Taylor reveals examples of racism and racist behaviour throughout the novel based on her own experiences. In this essay, I will discuss what blacks were subjected to and how racism is presented in this novel. Right from the very start, the Logan Children, although they have been protected from racism, experience unjust acts against them. The books that the Logan Children use in school were previously owned by the white children until they were considered too tatty for them to use.The books also include the race of the s tudent, using the word Ã¢â¬Å"nigra. Ã¢â¬ However, Little Man and Cassie do not know how to react to this: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦he sucked in his breath and sprang from his chair like a wounded animal, flinging the book onto the floor and stomping madly upon it. Ã¢â¬ This demonstrates how naive Little Man is as he reacts angry and offended because he has not been treated in that way before. This also shows that blacks do not need or require books that are in good condition because of the racist opinions of the whites.TJ Avery, a character introduced early on in the novel, is accustomed to racism and recognises it. He frequently gossips and enlightens the Logan Children about racist acts. An example of this is when he passes on details concerning the Berry Burnings: Ã¢â¬Å"I betcha I could give yÃ¢â¬â¢all an earful Ã¢â¬Ëbout that burninÃ¢â¬â¢ last nightÃ¢â¬ The Logan Children act surprised and reply with Ã¢â¬ËBurning? What burning? Ã¢â¬â¢ which further reveals their innoce nce and naivety to racism. Moreover, this illustrates TJÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of unjust and prejudice acts against black people.At the end of the novel, these prejudice and unjust acts are witnessed by the Logan Children when TJÃ¢â¬â¢s family are brutally attacked by the Ã¢â¬ËNight MenÃ¢â¬â¢. TJ is blamed for the murder of Mr. Barnett, a white man, when the offence was committed by R. W and Melvin Simms (two white boys). However, TJ was only an accomplice in the break in of Mr. BarnettÃ¢â¬â¢s store but this does not prevent the Ã¢â¬ËNight MenÃ¢â¬â¢ attacking TJ and his family. They do this because it gives them reason to physically and violently assault the Avery family just because theyÃ¢â¬â¢re black: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦dragged from the ouse on his knees. His face was bloody and when he tried to speak he cried with pain. Ã¢â¬ This shows they are treated like animals and not as equals. TJ is considered disposable by the white men as they do not care what happens to him . Also the fact that there was no legal intervention displays how racist the community really was towards black people. In my opinion, I think Mildred Taylor included this in the novel to show that no one stood up to it even though it was unjust and unfair. In contrast to this, not every white character in the book is racist.For example, Jeremy Simms and Mr. Jamison. Jeremy Simms, a white boy, wants to befriend the Logan Children despite knowing he will be punished for his actions as it is considered unacceptable for a white boy to socially interact with black children: Ã¢â¬Å"Jeremy grew even more pale, Ã¢â¬ËC-cause I just likes yÃ¢â¬â¢allÃ¢â¬â¢ he stammeredÃ¢â¬ This shows what a brave and courageous character he is to look beyond the colour of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s skin for the sake friendship. Mildred Taylor, I believe, included this in the book to show that not everyone was racist and as it gives the reader a sense of hope.In conclusion, this is a very thought provoking nov el as it presents racism in an effective way. This is due to Mildred Taylor writing it based on her own experiences which makes it very realistic. Furthermore, as the book was written from a childÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, it makes it easy to relate to and easier to understand. Racism was obvious from an early age as black children were made to feel unworthy even though some were protected from it by their parents. Also that for some their day to day reality of living with racism forced them to mature and grow up.Although unjust and unfair, racism was allowed to fester as there was no movement within the white community to prevent it continuing; most white people and black people just accepted it as they felt there was nothing they could do or it was too dangerous to stand up to. However, the novel shows there was a glimmer of hope as there were white people who disagreed with racism and were prepared to look beyond the colour of black peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s skin. I feel this book is suggestin g that racism affected black peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s, of all ages, day to day lives and were treated with prejudice and discrimination but with violent consequences. David Constant 9F
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Civil Engineering - Dissertation Example According to the report findings transit service works best when it is considered as an integral part of roadway design, development, and urban revitalization. The success of the transit service is directly tied to accomodation of the pedestrian. Pedestrian phases at busy intersections provide additional protection. Separate bicycle stop lines at intersections increase visibility and give cyclists a chance to pull away ahead of turning vehicles. As the paper stresses cities should take into account when investing money into roads that address the diversity of the population that is going to use those roads such as poor people, and households that do not own cars. Hence high and low road designs must Ã¢â¬Å"meet multiple objectives which are as follows: improving highways for their traffic movement, linking transporation investments to land use planning. In designing high and low roads then it must be essentially a factor as to what sorts of people it would benefit by using these roads -some people who are regulars who are using these roads to go to work, and kids riding the school bus to get to class everyday as opposed to someone who is a tourist and is more likely to frequent the use of the road much less. In the low road scenario, the role of any central organization is to ensure the integrity of the internal data definitions and networking standards and to provide full access. Indeed, aside from a process for establishin g a minimal set of data definitions and a means for data exchange, there may be no centrally controlled organization at all. The role of standards in the low road scenario is an important but limited one. Standards ensure the integrity of the internal data exchange process. The low road philosophy view most corporate technology standards as impediments to progress. They demand to use the latest technology, the best of new development tools, and the most appropriate software for their particular application (Azad,nd. p.1)." I would like to address this last point that my research included to use as a fundamental
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Emergency Management - Essay Example Safety training is a broad course that encompasses knowledge and use of specialized gear, self-defense techniques, environmental hazard studies, site evaluations, rescue operations and staff health and fitness curriculum. The paper delves into each of these topics explaining how each contributes to the improvement of emergency responderÃ¢â¬â¢s rescue capabilities and job performance. To what degree does safety training effectively improve emergency responderÃ¢â¬â¢s rescue capabilities and job performance? Disasters and emergencies can occur at any time and this requires the emergency responders to be prepared to handle such emergencies. In the United States, emergencies occur on a daily basis and emergency responders are required to answer the calls for help from citizens and take on jobs which have high potential risks. Emergencies can either be single or a series of incidents which cause disruptions in normal activities or threaten human life, property or assets if they are not immediately put under control, stabilized or contained. Emergency responders deal with a range of emergencies from the small scale everyday incidences that affect individuals and families to the large scale disasters which affect nations such as hurricanes, terrorist attacks and earthquakes (La Tourrette, 2003). The response to disasters over the last decade has raised questions regarding the effectiveness and capabilities of emergency responders. The response to emergencies has been found to be wanting. This has raised the need for emergency responders to be equipped with the necessary skills and knowledge through safety training for them to be effectively prepared for such emergencies. Emergency responders are usually deployed on the scene of a disaster or emergency to assist in rescue efforts. They may also be deployed to these sites to safeguard property, evacuate the victims from buildings, and provide any form of medical assistance to the victims (La Tourrette, 2003). Emergen cy responders who engage in rescue activities during such incidents include fire fighters, emergency medical personnel, and law enforcement agencies. Fire fighters are usually assigned the role of containing substances which are hazardous, putting out fires as well as the search and rescue of disaster victims. Emergency medical personnel usually assist in the rescue operations by providing medical care to injured victims. Law enforcement agencies, on the other hand, are responsible for maintaining law and order in the scene of the disaster, restriction of access to the disaster scene and the removal of injured and contaminated individuals from the scene of the disaster (Beaton, 2002). For emergency responders to perform their functions safely and effectively, safety training is expected. Safety training programs which are administered play a significant role in enhancing the response to emergencies and disasters. They can be broken down into workplace safety practices, safety practi ces in the line of duty and testing of physical wellness and fitness. The safety training helps emergency responders to understand their individual functions and responsibilities at the scene of the disaster. Accordingly, the different categories of emergency r
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Zapatista - Essay Example Similar to that revolution, the Zapatista movement of today (which started in 1994 until the present time) is a hodgepodge or mishmash of several ideologies, a heterogeneous mixture of socialism, libertarianism, anarchism and communism. Its overarching policy goal is to use the power of the word to achieve its aims which are social equity like equal distribution of wealth and protection for the downtrodden poor such as farmer peasants and the working class. In the words of Subcomandante Marcos himself, their revolutionary movement has generally abstained from the use of firepower and instead opted for democratic space by the use of the power of the media, hence the title of this wonderful book. Their advocacy is to be heard, especially in behalf of the very poor indigenous people of Chiapas, the southernmost state in Mexico. Their original purpose is to bring attention to the widening gap between the rich and the poor. Interestingly, Subcomandante Marcos is not of Mayan ancestry but this has not prevented him from siding with the poor of Chiapas. The Zapatista Movement is called a Ã¢â¬Å"post-modernÃ¢â¬ revolution that uses words for weapons, including the power of the Internet. Although little is known about the personal background of Subcomandante Marcos, it is generally believed that he is an intellectual of some sort based on his ideological beliefs. He himself had come under severe criticism lately for becoming elitist, contrary to what he had fought against, by becoming a celebrity figure who gladly signs autographs and poses readily for a photo op. The eloquence of Marcos allowed him to bring disparate groups together to fight a common cause Ã¢â¬â capitalism and neo-liberalism. In particular, the Zapatismo is thought to be a protest against the dangers of unbridled exploitative capitalism that is now advocated through free trade agreements and continuing globalization. Marcos views it
Monday, August 26, 2019
Inside Job from a Legal Perspective - Essay Example According to Inside Job, the issue securities of Goldman Sachs were crowded with fraud and deception.This is because the borrower of the security had borrowed all the money for the mortgage and therefore was under no threat of loss if the deal went wrong. These loans were however highly rated, prompting many people to purchase investments from the firm. Henry Paulson, the CEO who masterminded this scum was rewarded with a high salary. He was later offered government employment as secretary of treasury, a position that enables him to dispose more of his personal risky shares without having to pay taxes. Goldman also managed to earn extra finances by betting against the same securities that it was claiming to be high quality investment. The manager of Hedge fund, John Paulson made a lot of money by betting against the mortgage industry. He however continued to work with other stakeholders to create more mortgage securities so that he could bet against them to increase his income (Insid e Job). Morgan Stanley also made plenty of securities in the mortgage business that was of low quality. These securities were however rated as high investment securities, making many people to purchase them. The investors ended up losing millions of money while Morgan Stanley made much more by betting against the investments. Fraud is a sort of criminal involvement characterized as misuse of position or false representation, or prejudicing somebody's rights for individual gain. Essentially, fraud is a form of double-dealing and deception planned for individual gain or to bring about a misfortune to another party. The general criminal offense of misrepresentation can incorporate duplicity whereby somebody purposely makes false representation, they neglect to uncover important information or they mishandle a position. Fraudsters are continually discovering better approaches to deceive others for their own benefit. They employ different of channels to deceive others.
Sunday, August 25, 2019
UNIT 4 DISCUSSION BOARD - Essay Example Stockholders of the firm that is about to have another company within its folds as the strategic partner are the ones who are hit financially as well as otherwise in this alliance as they feel neglected in the whole deal. They lose out on the benefits that might entail from the partnership as well as feel left out of the whole equation as a matter of fact. The real reason behind acquiring other firms lies in the rationale that they bring with them huge amounts of revenue, investment opportunities as well as manpower. Another aspect suggests that they also bring forward target markets which were unheard of in the past ad was literally impossible for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business to reach in the present as well as past scheme of things. A long term as well as a short term investment is thus made due to the fact that these companies are acquired and thus they work hand in hand with each other. The reasons for purchasing other firms lies on the basis that a company wants to reach to newer target audiences and for that it needs to take help and assistance from the other company. This means more and more alliance with potential partners as well as different conglomerates are formed up as a result. The mergers and acquisitions are also made up so as to predict foreseeable profits and rewards for both the parties concerned and thus end up as a strategic partnership that would garner benefits for all concerned. Acquired corporations are being paid too much in the wake of all these acquisitions that one is left bewildered at the amount of investments happening in this sector. Of course these would mean benefits for the whole industry present in a region but the same does not happen as the major players seem to have a win-win deal out of all this. The small parties are always left on the mercy of the big fish and thus they lose out big time. The need of the hour is to decrease these losses for the small investors or
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Fast Food Restaurants are Responsible for Obesity in U.S - Research Paper Example Moreover, it has been noted that the fast-food sector attracts the middle class by locating restaurants along highways and offering foods that attract a large number of Americans. Lower prices, free toys and convenience target the middle class particularly those who are budget-conscious (Strom, 2011). Furthermore, advertisements for fast-food restaurants are normally immensely appealing and thus attract many customers to visit the restaurants in order to get the deliciously served foods they see on advertisements. As a result, these people are likely to visit the restaurant frequently due to increasing appeals the advertisers pose. Even-though, it is clear that fast foods are to some extent responsible for Obesity in America, the restaurants are not responsible for notifying the public about the risks because people are free to make their decisions concerning what to eat or not. Research has shown that working class persons visit fast foods more often than the rich people do. This means that these people are learned and; therefore, they are aware of the dangers of consuming fast foods. In addition, one can argue that Obesity does not result solely from eating fast foods; it can result from cigarette smoking, and lack of exercise. Strom, S. (November 30, 2011)Toys Stay in San Francisco Happy Meals, for a Charge. The New York Times. Retrieved from
Religious Uncertainty and the Cycle of Life and Death in the Poems of Dylan Thomas - Research Paper Example His works, published in his teenage between 1930 and 1934, portray the struggle between crisis of his life, like finding his own identity which is typical of teenage, and himself. His musical writing style was infatuated with the sound and rhythm of words, and their manifold meanings. The richness of meaning often became illogical, and the innovatory syntax depicting celestial and sexual descriptions made his poetry somewhat hard to understand. The themes of religious uncertainty and the cycle of life and death may have arisen from some catastrophic life events, like the marriage of his love and his relationship with his father. When he travelled to London and Wales between 1934 and 1936, the years of publication of Eighteen Poems and Twenty-five poems respectively, he met a lot of literary personalities and started an affair with the poet and novelist, Pamela Hansford Johnson, who later on got married to the novelist C.P. Snow. This incident made Thomas a heart-broken hard drinker. Thomas had always felt a lot of difficulty in writing first-rate poetry and to be considered as a poet (Poetry Foundation). This also led him to plagiarize at times. Thomas started bringing elements of sadness, war, and financial failures in his poetry when he moved to a borrowed house in Wales with his wife. When Thomas married Caitlin Macnamara in 1937, they were impoverished. They moved to Laugharne, Wales and remained there till Thomas died in 1953. The monetary troubles that they encountered, like the recurrent borrowing of lodgings, started overlapping his artistic style of writing. Admirers and critics started seeing a drift in his poetry in which he, then, talked about his love for his wife, child, dwelling, and death. War, which broke out in Europe in 1939, became a noticeable subject of his poetry published in his third book, the Map of Love. However, due to war, the work was a failure. These external circumstances added to his conception of life and death, and religious u ncertainties that showed themselves in his later works. ThomasÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with his father is also of particular interest in understanding his style of writing (Kabra, Mutoko and Mendonca). Ã¢â¬ËDo Not Go Gentle into That Good NightÃ¢â¬â¢, is a villanelle he wrote in 1945 for his father, D.J. Thomas, who was struggling with cancer. It was a 19-line poem and consisted of five tercets and a quatrain on two rhymes. The first and third lines of the first tercet recurred alternately as a catchphrase finishing the subsequent stanzas, and connected as the last couplet of the quatrain. In this poem, Thomas addressed his own father as he moved toward sightlessness and death. The relationship showed Thomas's philosophical admiration for his father's adamant intellectual autonomy, which was now under control of poor health. Having emotionally moved and agitated, Thomas made himself show his emotions and respect in the intricate structure of the villanelle. His musical writing sty le made the five tercets lead by a quatrain, with the opening and ending lines of the stanza coming alternately as the ending lines of the next stanzas. The recurring lines collected into a couplet at the last part of the quatrain. We see only two rhymes and ten syllables in each line. He talked about wild men, good men, and grave men in this
Friday, August 23, 2019
Organizational Commitment and Organizational Effectiveness - Term Paper Example Organizational change is primarily structural in character and it is designed to bring about alterations in organizational structure, methods, and processes. (Nilanjan, S et al,3 2006) Change is endemic to all organizations operating in business markets which involve improvements on current ways of doing things, of fine-tuning operations and implementing incremental changes on standard operating procedures. (Patrick D, and Constantine A, 2009)4 According to Whybrow (2007,p.5)5 it is necessary to act in times of immediate change, no matter how nasty it may seem or how much it impacts on staff or colleagues. In view of the changing nature of business and risks involved in it which is evident through the recession and economic depression occurring time and again challenging the business policies of the top leaders, change is necessary to face new challenges of every facet like accounting, technology, management, etc. There are certain factors that contribute to the change process in an organization like internal forces which include financial constraints, the need to do more with less, cross-functional teams, mergers and acquisitions, and empowered workers, etc. and external forces like new workforce demographics, changing expectations about quality, productivity, and customer satisfaction along with new technologies (APQC, 1999).6 The transformation of the bankrupt organization like Chrysler in 1970s to profitability which was possible due to the effective leadership of Iacocca, who revamped the internal politics and systems, changed the management structure, trimmed tens of thousands of employees, won concessions from UAW and transforming the company loser stigma of government bailout into positive cultural shift. It is pertinent to mention here that organizational change is triggered by an event which indicates the need for change like bankruptcy, in the case of Chrysler. However, it is assumed that change is followed by mixed reactions which provide positive i mpetus for change along with negative resistance from individuals and the organizations like technical systems, political systems and cultural systems (Pagan, 20087 and Rashid, Sambasivan & Rahman, 2003)8 The present paper discusses the role of culture and commitment to organizational change and provides some recommendation to maintain the commitment in the change process. Culture is often defined as that which is shared by and unique to a given organization or group and is an integrating mechanism, the social or normative glue that holds together a potentially diverse group of organizational members. (Warwick Organizational Behavior Staff, 2001, p.322)9 Smircich (cited in Iivari, n.d)10 analyzed different conceptions of organizational culture in relation to anthropological schools which have been conceived either as a variable or as a root metaphor for conceptualizing organization which is further divided into two areas: organizations have been regarded as cultures or having a cult ure. It is further mentioned that culture contributes to the overall balance and effectiveness of an organization.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
The World Is A Text Essay The introduction of Silverman and Raders The World is a Text states that: Ã¢â¬Å"We should think of our entire world as something that should be readÃ¢â¬ (Silverman Dean, Introduction). On my personal view, this means that we should think and analyze each event that happens in our daily lives. Critical thinking is necessary in order for us to understand the world as a whole and consider its inside (human factors) and outside (non-human factors). This involves the environment, development and sustainability of the world and the people in general. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One real-life example of how I read the world recently is how fair treatment campaigns are done worldwide but still it remains as one of the biggest problem that we all face. Mixed-raced or pure, unfair treatments is an issue at home, office, schools and other places that truly brings an imprint of trauma to someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s heart resulting to social division of people according to their race. The influence and impact of this issue causes people to change their individual character as a person just to belong in a group that results to behavioral risk problems, lack of self-esteem, social isolation and problems in family relationships. This racial difference is the root cause of the conflicts our world is experiencing now that is why it should be read and solved first. Diversity cannot be avoided but it can be applied in a positive manner. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The world is something that we should interpret.Ã In terms of social factors, each one of us must consider the different factors that may influence decision-making and the actions we take as values, beliefs and personal circumstances. There is a need to reconcile these diverse social aspects of human race to complete a firm global citizenship. Works Cited Silverman, Jonathan and Rader, Dean. The World is a Text: The Writing, Reading, and Ã Ã Thinking Ã About Culture and Its Contexts (2nd Edition). New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2005.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Sustainable Township Development In Malaysia Environmental Sciences Essay According to Paul-Marie Boulanger, the concept of sustainable development was originally same as the sustainability. Both of these terms were derived from an older forestry term sustained yield, which was a translation of German term nachhaltigerErtag since 1713. From various sources, it was shown that the concept of sustainability in the sense of a balance between the consumption and reproduction of resources was already been applied in the 12th to 16th century. Adans, W.N. (2006) said that, the history of the concept of sustainability is much older than what was expected. Since during 400 BCE, Aristotle was referred to a similar Greek concept in talking about household economics. The first use of the term sustainable in the modern sense was by the Club of Rom in March 1972 in making the report of Limits to Growth, which was written by a group of scientists led by Dennis and Donella Meadows of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Ar Dr Tan Loke Mun once said that, greenhouse gasses and ozone depletion became household words following the Earth Summit in Rio, 1992 and since then, Green building ratings began to be developed all around the world. UK had developed BREEAM as their rating tool; USA had developed LEED as their rating tool; whereas for Malaysia, GBI was developed as Green rating tool in Malaysia. He also said that, the GBI Malaysia was introduced on 3rd January 2009 at the Green Design Forum which was held at Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre. As stated by Jackson, T. Michaelis, L. (2003), the concept of sustainability can be linked to human development which was originated in the 1970s with books such as Goldsmiths blueprint for Surviva! (1972) and the Club of Romes Limits to Growth (1972). In the same year, 1972, the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, in Stockholm put the spotlight on the reconciliation of environment and economic development. From what was told by Ar Dr Tan Loke Mun, after the realization that buildings and the built development contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas emissions, all the buildings and development needed to be re-designed to minimize the negative impact which will be imposed to the environment. By using GBI rating tools as reference, the final built product will perform better in its location while minimizing the negative impacts released to the surroundings during development. 1.2 Problem Statement According to Punitha Silivarajoo (2009), there are many negative impacts which arise from the current development skill. For instance, loss of income from polluted resources such as rivers and beaches, loss of ecosystem services, and the most serious factor is that, it contributing into the causes of climate change and global warming. Climate change can cause several chain reactions such as flash flood which happens commonly in Kuala Lumpur area. From what was told by our Prime Minister of Malaysia, Dato Sri Mohd Najib (2011), the worst scenarios of climate disasters due to the global effects of carbon emissions and climate change should not be taken lightly. The building and construction sector which accounts nearly 40% of the worlds energy consumption eventually contributing to the climate change and global warming due to the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases which caused by the current development. He also said that, the Green Building Index Township Tool was introduced and implemented to set out a vision for sustainability within the built environment which provides guidance to assist the State and Local Authorities, developers, builders and professionals to deliver more environment-friendly and sustainable townships and communities. Therefore, this research was carried out to identify why the sustainable township development is being used in Malaysia nowadays as well as the impact of emission of CO2. 1.3 Aim To study why sustainable township development is being used in Malaysia. 1.4 Objectives To identify the reasons why implement sustainable township development in Malaysia. To identify what will happen in future if current development continues without implementing sustainable township. To identify what are the criteria need to be taken care during implementation of sustainable township development. 1.5 Hypothesis The sustainable township development is being implemented because it gives many advantages over its disadvantages as compared to the non-sustainable township development. The negative impacts from non-sustainable township development are eventually causing many problems to the environment. 1.6 Research Methodologies According to Kumar (2005), placing of literature review is one of the essential preliminary tasks when you intend to undertake a research study is to go through the literature in order to acquaint yourself with the knowledge in the field you interesting in. He also said that literature review can help to make a valuable contribution to almost every operational step in the research. As what were said by Richard Fellows Anite Liu (2008), there are two major types of data collection: primary data and secondary data. Primary data are sources which can be gained by the researcher as close as possible to what was happened during the event or time whereas secondary data are sources which can be gathered through interpretation or analysing of data and is usually based on primary data. From what was told by Dawson, Catherine (2002) in the Practical Research Methods, primary data is data that being collected for the first time; secondary date is data which have been already collected and analysed by someone else. Observation is one of the common methods which are being used as primary data collection. In this research, questionnaire will be set and distributed to the person who involves themselves in the construction industry such as contractor, quantity surveyor and architect. Example of the question that will be asked to them is about their thinking of current township development in Malaysia whether it is sustainable or not. About 30 to 50 copies of questionnaire will be distributed to the respondents. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 What is Sustainable Township? In regards with GBI (2012), Sustainable Township was defined as liveable places which meet the diverse needs of the community, both now and in the future. These places are providing a high quality of life for the people who lives, work and play there by being well planned and designed, safe and secure, and enhances the surrounding environment. It also mentioned that the basis on the concept of sustainable development is the balanced approached to addressing the environmental, social and economic issues. Sustainable Townships are integrated planned habitats which focus on the interior of the buildings, architectural design of the buildings, as well as the living environment by emphasize on maximizing energy and resource savings, the use and recycling of natural resources, and also promoting the public health and general welfare of urban population and reducing the negative impacts that surround the environment. Other than that, Sustainable Townships are also well landscaped and providing the basic needs or amenities for human being, for example, parks and playgrounds which can be used to improve the interaction and integration among the local communities. In response with the 10th Malaysia Plan, several steps are being taken by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government to ensure the needs of current and future communities by stimulating the rapid growth of urbanization which is expected to increase from 67% in 2010 to 75% by 2020. Green Building Index (GBI) and GBI Township Tool were introduced as advisable Malaysia rating system in promoting the Green Technology as a new driver for the economic growth of the country by offering tremendous opportunities and potentials in the economic regeneration, innovation and wealth creation. Pertubuhan Arkitek Malaysia (PAM) and the Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia (ACEM)s initiatives in introducing the GBI Township Tool (version II) are being appreciated very much as the green transformation can be taken into the next level, as well as in line with the Governments New Economic Model, which is to become a high-income nation that is both inclusive and sustainable by the year of 2020. According to TimothyBeatley, the word sustainability was derived from the Latin word sustinere which means to hold. Various dictionaries had defined various meaning of sustainability, but the main one to be referred here having the meaning of maintain, support or endure. For the word township, is defined as a city. Thus, by combining these information, sustainable township development can be explained as a development of city which can maintain or support longer with better quality than the other township development. From Brundland Report (1987), sustainable township development was defined as an development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. From the report, there are two key concepts contained within it: the concept of needs, which means to which overriding priority should be given; and secondly the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environments ability to meet the needs of both present and future. 2.2 Why Implement Sustainable Townships Development On September, 2011, our Prime Minister, Dato Sri Mohd Najib had announced plans for a Low Carbon Cities Framework and Assessment System to bring Malaysia into a low carbon economy and he made a promise that the carbon dioxide emissions will be reduced by 40% by 2020 compared to 2005. It is his aspiration to develop both Putrajaya and Cyberjaya as shining examples of eco-friendly townships and replicating it in other towns and cities across Malaysia. In other words, Putrajaya and Cyberjaya will be the first two Sustainable Township in Malaysia. According to Warren Kerlenzig, 2009, some of our biggest challenges in cutting carbon to reduce global climate change will be in understanding the system dynamics that the cities and other corporation or neighborhoods comprise. Therefore, GBI Township Tool was set out for Sustainable Township Development for sustainability within the built environment and to provide guidance that is able to deliver the Sustainable Townships in the Malaysia Context. A scientist in the 19th century, Svantte Arrhenius, said that gases in the atmosphere cause a greenhouse effect which affects the planets temperature. He had calculated that the carbon emissions from human industry might someday contribute to global warming, which is happening nowadays. At that time, the other scientists dismissed his thought as faulty. Since 1938, the level of carbon dioxide was increasing and raising global temperature. Then only the argument was found implausible. Researchers found that gases, especially carbon dioxide, which mostly being produced from construction industry, play a crucial role in the climate change and the rising level would gravely affect our future. Tony Cooper, 2007, said that there are different scenarios which cause the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and all of these eventually contributed to global warming. He also said that, the global warming is caused by the emission of greenhouse gases, and 72% of the total emitted greenhouse gas is CO2. CO2 is created when fossil fuels such as oil, diesel and natural gas are being burned. The CO2 emitted have been dramatically increasing within these last 50 years and it is still increasing. The CO2 is being taken as serious factors in contributing to global warming because it can remain in the atmosphere for at least 80 years and can be up to 200 years. According to the recent investigation, if the global temperatures keep on increasing by more than 2Ã ° C, an unimaginable catastrophic which will change in the environment is expected to take place. From the information above, it can be concluded the CO2 which released from current development will contribute to the greenhouse effect which eventually become global warming, which is one of the hot topic being discussed all around the world. Therefore, to overcome the problem of global warming, the emission of greenhouse effect must be reduced, and to reduce the effect of greenhouse, the most effective way is by minimizing the CO2 emission especially in the construction industry. Emits Contributes to Current Development CO2 Greenhouse Effect Global warming Causes Figure Negative impacts of current Township Development2.2.1 Impacts of Global Warming Global warming happens due to increase in air temperature. There are several chain effects which will occur due to global warming. 126.96.36.199 Melting of Polar Ice Caps The deadliest effect of global warming is raise of sea level. When the sea level is raised, the polar ice caps will definitely be melted by the water. Ice caps are white in colour and thus it helps in reflect the sunlight, which helps in cooling our earth. If the ice caps are melted, the only sunlight is the ocean, thus the temperature all around the world will be increased. Since ice caps are fresh water, if they are melted, desalinization of sea water will occur. The sea water will become less salty, and it will cause species that live in the sea to face the problem of extinction. 188.8.131.52 Increased the probability and intensity of droughts and heat waves As global warming happens, some areas of the earth will become wetter, but some other areas will suffer the problems of droughts and heat waves, such as Africa. Now, the water is already a scarce commodity in Africa, the global warming will worsen the condition. 184.108.40.206 Changes in Seasons and Seasonal Characters Different areas have their own seasons and seasonal character. However, global warming will results in changes of these seasons and seasonal character. Most of the areas will no longer have the summer or winter seasons. Due to change in air temperature and rainfall patterns, the seasons will also be preponed or postponed. 220.127.116.11 Spreading of Diseases Due to change in environment, many species may not be able to suit themselves in the newly changed environment and facing dead. Thus, many of these species will die and their corpses which are not taken care will cause new diseases to occur and spreading all around the world unpredictably. Some of these diseases may even cause death. Poor areas with poor medical facilities will definitely suffering much more than the others. 2.2.2 Merits of Implementing Sustainable Township Development Implementation of sustainable township development not only helps in reducing the carbon emission but also giving some others benefits. For instance, sustainable township development uses sustainable design which helps in maximizing the energy efficiency by using sustainable energy such as solar energy. This not only helps the residents to reduce their cost for electricity usage but also helps in reducing the emission of CO2 because CO2 is emitted from the usage of electricity. Other than energy efficiency, water efficiency can also be done. Next, sustainable township development helps in reducing the pollutions. Most of the non-sustainable township development will cause pollutions in term of air, water as well as sound pollution. In sustainable township development, all the industrial area will be placed on the edges of the township and is some distance to the residential area. This can help in reducing sound pollution caused by industrial area to the residential area. Other than sound pollution, air pollution problem can also be solved. Some more, unlike the non-sustainable township development, in this sustainable township development, the pollution will be controlled by introducing a clearer and practice of site sedimentation. This means that the water pollution can be prevented as well. Besides, more green spaces such as public park, playground, community run herb garden, and also recreational lakes will be provided in a sustainable township. This can actually create a healthy and lively community. It was said that greenery helps to release our stress especially when tiring after working for a whole day. Presence of lakes enables the community to spend their time over there with their beloved family during the weekend or holidays. The water quality of the lakes will be maintained at high quality all the time. One of the main merits of a sustainable township is the sustainable transportation network. The transportation network provided is well connected to all places within the township. It is an ease for the residential to go everywhere they want as long as in the township. In other non-sustainable township, the problems always faced by the residents are the transportation problems. The public transport such as buses and taxi are hardly available during certain period of time or at some areas. In sustainable township, the residents no longer have to worry about the problem of transportation as public transport such as buses and taxi is available everywhere from time to time. The road will also be designed in the best way to minimize or even avoid the traffic jam problem, which is also another problem that faced by everyone in the non-sustainable township, especially during the peak hour. When a new sustainable township is being developed, there will be many companies going to venture. Thus, the rate of employment will be increased. In addition, the residents in the township able to find a job which near their houses. Since the working place is just near to their houses, most of them will either walk or take public transport such as buses instead of driving, which will help in reduce the probability of traffic jam. 2.2.3 Incentives Given by Government In publicity of sustainable township development, two main incentives are given by out Malaysia Government. Firstly, is the tax exemption for green building user? According to GBI, 2011, any person who incurs qualifying expenditure (QE) to obtain GBI certification for a building used for his business qualifies for tax exemption. This tax incentive provides exemption on the statutory income which is equivalent to 100% of that expenditure. The qualifying expenditure is also known as the Green Building Cost Sum, which means an additional expenditure incurred in relation to construction of a building, alteration, renovation, extension or improvement of an existing building. The exemption can be up to 100% of statutory income for each year of assessment. According to the guidelines issued by Lembaga Hasil Dalam Negeri Malaysia (LHDNM), any unutilised QE can be carried forward to subsequent years of assessment until the amount is fully exempted and this tax exemption only applies once for each building certified from 24 October 2009 until 31 December 2014. The second incentive given by the Malaysia Government is stamp duty exemption. According to GBI, 2011, the stamp duty exemption provides exemption on instruments of transfer of ownership of buildings and residential properties acquired from property developers and awarded GBI certificate. The exemption is on the additional cost of the property incurred to obtain the GBI certificate. According to LHDNM, the exemption is only given for the first transfer of ownership of the building and for sales and purchase agreements executed from 24 October 2009 until 31 December 2014 and once certified, the applicants can claim for the tax exemption or stamp duty exemption in their annual Income Tax return Forms. 2.3 GBI Township Tool To identify whether a township development is sustainable or not, GBI township tool will be used. The varies Green Rating tools such as GBI Townships Tools are being used to assist the architects, designers, builders, planners, developer as well as the end users to exposed themselves to the impact of each and every of the design choices well in moving towards to be more environmentally-friendly. The developer can take this GBI township tool as a reference before the commencement of development. 6 key criteria in GBI Township Tool Climate, Energy Water (CEW) Ecology Environment (EEC) Community Planning Design (CPD) Transportation Connectivity (TRC) Building Resources (BDR) Business Innovation (BSI) Figure 6 key criteria in GBI Township Tool 2.4 GBI Assessment Criteria for Sustainable Townships Development in Malaysia 2.4.1 Climate, Energy Water (CEW) To minimise the impact on the environment by practicing energy efficiency, water efficiency and sustainable development. These can be achieved by minimising the impact of heat island effect, minimising the energy consumption, and also utilising the renewable energy technology such as micro-generation. Other than that, the on-going production and consumption of energy and water will be balanced. In order to achieve the aim of zero net carbon emissions, the passive design principles are maximised, as well as adopting the onsite energy generation. Water efficiency can be achieved through the reduction of main water consumption, rainwater harvesting and grey water recycling. Grey water is water comes from the laundry machines, dish-washes, bathtubs, and sinks. It does not include any human waste or sewerage. This criterion holds a maximum of 20 points for the allocation of points in the Township Tool. The following are the key issues and assessment criteria: Heat Island Design Principles 4 credits Efficient Streetscape Greenspace Lighting 2 credits On Site Green Generation 2 credits Renewable Energy 4 credits Reduced Water Use 4 credits Reduction in Water Waste 4 credits 2.4.2 Environmental Ecology (EEC) The impact on the environment can be minimised by adopting several practices as well as preserving the site ecology and biodiversity. Respect and do not destroy the surrounding environment and the native ecological systems. Always be sensitive to the needs of the local ecology and biodiversity. Preserve and enhance the ecological value of the environment. This can helps in stabilising the land which will also reduce the impact during flooding. This criterion holds a maximum of 15 points for the allocation of points in the Township Tool. The following are the key issues and assessment criteria: Biodiversity Conservation 2 credits Land Reuse 1 credit Ecology 3 credits Flood Management and Avoidance 1 credit Wetland and Water Body Conservation 1 credit Agricultural Land Preserve 1 credit Hill Slope Development 1 credit Sustainable Stormwater Design Management 2 credits Proximity to Existing Infrastructure 1 credit Services Infrastructure Provision 1 credit Light Pollution 1 credit 2.4.3 Community Planning Design (CPD) To minimise the impacts on the environment and also to promote community connectivity and participation, the site should be chosen wisely and the space should be planned accordingly. The township is planned and designed for the benefits of the community who live, work or play there. It will be created using an integrated way to master the planning and the best design which emphasising on the peoples priority and also greenery. These can help in creating a strong sense of place for communities which will then results in a more livable and diverse neighbourhoods. This criterion holds a maximum of 26 points for the allocation of points in the Township Tool. The following are the key issues and assessment criteria: Greenspaces 3 credits Compact Development 1 credit Amenities for Communities 3 credits Provision for Universal Accessibility 3 credits Secure Design 2 credits Health in Design 2 credits Recycling Facilities 2 credits Community Diversity 1 credits Affordable Housing 1 credits Community Thrust 4 credits Governance 4 credits 2.4.4 Transportation and Connectivity (TRC) To reduce the impacts caused by transportation, affordable and sustainable transportation network will be provided within the development and linkages outside the development. The township will be a well-connected place with the services of varies transportation options to ease the community. It will provide an excellent accessibility, connectivity and are well linked to most of the districts. This criterion holds a maximum of 14 points for the allocation of points in the Township Tool. The following are the key issues and assessment criteria: Green Transport Masterplan 8 credits Availability and Frequency of Public Transport 1 credit Facilities for Public Transportation 1 credit Pedestrian Networks 1 credit Cycling Networks 2 credits Alternative Transport Options 1 credit 2.4.5 Building Resources Practice of sustainable construction to reduce the impacts due to consumption of primary resources. To lower the impact on resources, the more from less principle is applied. The need will be emphasized to maximise the use of highly resource-intensive materials through using a life cycle approach. The local materials and resources will be made good use for the construction of new communities. This criterion holds a maximum of 15 points for the allocation of points in the Township Tool. The following are the key issues and assessment criteria: Low Impact Material (Infrastructure) 1 credit Low Impact Material (Buildings or Structures) 1 credit Regional Material 1 credit Quality in Construction 2 credits Construction Waste Management 1 credit Site Sedimentation and Pollution Control 1 credit Sustainable Construction Practice 2 credit GBI Certified Building 6 credits 2.4.6 Business Innovation To meet the basic needs and requirements of communities by increase the employment through applying several innovative ways. More employment opportunities will be provided especially for the residents who live in the township so that they can work closer to their homes and places for business to be shaped and prosper. This criterion holds a maximum of 10 points for the allocation of points in the Township Tool. The following are the key issues and assessment criteria: Business 3 credits Innovation 6 credits GBI Facilitator 1 credit 2.5 Sustainability of Township Development Many people is concerning about whether is our current township development sustainable? Was our past township development sustainable? From the information I get, most of the past township development is not sustainable. So far, only some township development can be considered as sustainable after the launching of GBI Township Rating Tool on 29 March 2011. The most commonly to be known for sustainable townships are Putrajaya and Cyberjaya. Our past township development is to be said as not sustainable because the township development does not fulfil the criteria in the GBI Township Rating Tool. For instance, sustainable transportation is one of the criteria in GBI Township Rating Tool which should be fulfilled. Public transport should be easily available for the residents of the township. The road should also be designed to minimize the occurrence of traffic jam. However, most of the residents in the past townships are facing the same biggest problem, which is the transportation pro blem. They are unsatisfied with the provision of public transport such as buses. In addition, traffic jam occurs in most of the township. A sustainable township is also means a township or city which is free of pollution. However, air pollution and sound pollution are another problems that faced by the residents of the past township. The industrial area is located just some miles away to the residential area. This is also one of the factors which cause the traffic jam. Maximizing the energy efficiency by using sustainable equipment or sustainable energy such as solar energy is also another characteristic of sustainable township development. In the past township development, the maximization of energy efficiency is not achieved. Many of the residents still fully use electricity supplied by TNB.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Environmental Issues in Malaysia 1 INTRODUCTION There has been a very high level of concern on environmental issues worldwide nowadays. Ministry of foreign affairs statistic shows that over the years, the temperature has been rise because of carbon dioxide trapped and green house gases have affected the global climate. This change will affect the people live all over the world. This also includes access to water, health, food and the well being of the environment. Todays, many consumers started to realize that their purchasing behavior actually will cause a big impact to the environment. Therefore, companies should practice offering environmentally friendly products and service to people to prevent this world become worse. Therefore, companies should practice offering environmentally friendly products and service to people to prevent this world become worse. Although, Malaysia has undergone an excellent development followed governmental efforts to attract foreign investor to come and invest for a green product development in Malaysia, the practices of environmental responsible behavior are still low among Malaysian consumers. An example of the lack of environmental responsible behavior is shown in an article in Bernama whereby garbage thrown by one of the state in Malaysia residents is the main cause of river pollution in the state. According to a survey which was conducted on line by global market insight and information group, on the aspect of eco-friendliness of habits and behaviors only 8% of Malaysian respondents responded that they have changed their behavior in a greatest deal to benefit the environment. In addition 83% respondents reported that their views on a companys and their Colleges friendliness to the environment would influence their purchases of products and services. Studying the determinants of generation-Y consumers green purchase behavior will be definitely benefit green marketers. Generation-Y (also known as a millennial) is defined as A label attributed to people born during the 1980s and early 1990s. Members of Generation Y are often referred to as echo boomers because they are the children of parents born during the baby boom (baby boomers). Because children born during this time period have had constant access to technology (computers, cell phones) in their youth, they have required many employers to update their hiring strategy in order to incorporate updated forms of technology. In a simple word, generation-Y grew up with a technology and relies on those things to perform their job and their task. In addition, when going through a literature review in Malaysian context, there are still a gap existed between environmental knowledge, intention and behavior towards green product. [Said et al. (2005)]. Even though people that have vast knowledge about green products are not necessarily would buy a green product. Therefore, factors those determine and affect Generation-Y to purchase a green product would be worth to find out. 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE RESEARCH Environment is defined as what surrounds a thing or an item or in other words it means the surrounding. It could be a physical element which is physical environment, that includes the built environment, natural environment such as air, water, land, atmosphere and etc or it could be human environment where people surrounding the item or thing which also known as the social environment. Today environment is getting worst and worst. Many environmental issues arise. Environmental concerns have been growing in recent years. One of the examples of environmental issue is global warming. Global warming and climate change refer to an increase in average global temperatures. Natural events and human activities such as burning garbage and waste are believed to be contributing to an increase in average global temperatures. This is caused primarily by increases in greenhouse gases such as Carbon Dioxide. The greenhouse effect keeps the earth warm when functioning normally. For the first time in h istory, human activities are altering the climate of our entire planet. According to (Jack, 2010), in less than 2 centuries, humans have increased the total amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by 25% from the burning of fossil fuels and the destruction of forests. In addition to the natural fluxes of carbon through the Earth system, human activities, particularly fossil fuel burning and deforestation, are also releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere (The Carbon Cycle; the Human Role, Earth Observatory, NASA). Green product is define as a product that produce limited carbon footprints; they may require fewer resources to produce, consume less energy or emit fewer hazardous emissions.ÃâÃ Green product is also a product that is non toxic, water-efficient, and also recyclable and biodegradable. There are many green products that have been produce for people in the market. For example, a household cleaner. Nowadays its nearly impossible to go shopping without finding a plethora of products that claim to be environmentally and consumer friendly. Oddly enough, many cheap and eco-friendly substances, such as vinegar, have been used for years as home cleaners. Whether you buy a green cleaning product at a store or use something on hand in your pantry, you can reap the benefits of choosing products that are gentler on you and the environment. Phosphate-free dishwasher and laundry detergents are also consider a green product because they do not discharge environment-damaging phosphates into wat erways. Other examples of green cleaning products are those labeled certified biodegradable; these have passed several stringent tests relating to biodegradability and environmental impact conducted by an independent certifying agency. According to Consumer Reports, the certified biodegradable label is more meaningful than a general biodegradable label. Glass and metal cleaners, kitchen and bathroom cleaners, and laundry detergents are products that might carry this label. The rationale for going green is twofold. Clearly, the positive effects on the environment are a key driver for purchasing green product.ÃâÃ Green product provides myriad environmental benefits. They can replace toxic materials that may be harmful to people or animals. Also, some products save energy and water, while others limit solid waste and manufacturing releases. Green products create a healthier environment for people through reduced exposure to cleaners, solvents, paints and other hazardous substances. Green product also can reduce allergies. Many families find that their children are suffering from allergies, even though their family history does not necessary say that there are no allergies. In some situations, chemicals found within cleaning products contain allergens. Bleaches, toxic cleaning sprays and other chemicals used to clean the home commonly contain a variety of ingredients specifically able to cause or trigger allergies in people.ÃâÃ Generation Y are the cool generation, they embrace brand and live in the new world of digitize communication. Thus that might be interesting to find their perception and their level of awareness towards environmental issues that the world is facing nowadays. Gen Y has grown up in a very structure, busy and over planned world. Also, Gen Y is made up of confident, optimistic young people who feel valued and wanted. In a article of science daily, Gen-Y is a people that will go all the way when it comes to saving the environment as long as it benefit to world economic and environment. They are maturing into a pragmatic generation that wants to do the right thing for the environment but also has real economic concerns 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT Consumers or practically customers are the sellers and buyers that boost the countrys economy. Therefore, many firms are actually putting many efforts in order to attract more customers because these customers create businesses opportunities and generate profits to them. As the world nowadays facing so many problems regarding to an environmental issue, the consumers and their attitudes or behaviors to purchase a green product are the important factors to be considered. Consumers nowadays have more choices due to the effects of globalization. They will prefer the function of the product rather than the brand or whatsoever to ensure a healthier future. To determine the current level of Gen-y consumers preference towards the green products. To determine what are the determinants or factors of Gen-y consumer preferences towards the green product. To determine the consequences or effects of Gen-y consumer preferences towards the green product. To determine consumer level of awareness of Gen-y consumer towards green product. 1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE Awareness towards environmental issue that the world nowadays facing play a major role encourage people to purchase a green product. Thus, this study is attempts to relate on the various variables that influence consumer especially generation-Y to purchase a green product. The objectives are as the following: To study the factors affecting the consumer especially Gen-Y to purchase green product. Gen-y is a new generation and It is crucial to understand as they are more advance and modernize. Thus, several researches have been conducted in order to understand consumers in a way that how they behave, and what are the factors that cause them to behave or react to the responses of the products. Leading factors such as price and quality are always the top concerns to the consumers. Product attributes will moderate the effects of price on quality judgments. Partial of the consumers may focus on buying low prices goods and neglect the quality of the products. This group of consumers takes the price as a measure of sacrifice. For instance, consumers take the price served as the benchmark for comparing utility gains from the quality of the product. One the other hand, some portion of the consumers will be willing to pay a premium price for the quality and function of the products, as they are very sensitive to the signals of the quality of one product. Thus, it is hope that this stud y will contribute further to the understanding of factors of price and quality that may lead to the consumers prefer for a green product To understand the awareness level of people about Go Green campaign. Nowadays, there are many environmental campaign have been organized by a government and private sector. This campaign is aim to encourage people to more concern about the environment. Thus, it is hope that this study will explore how people react to a environmental campaign and what is their level of awareness about the awareness campaign. To examine the benefit for people involvement in Go Green program. We might be asking, how we will benefit from getting involved in this environmental campaign. Well, recently there has been an increase in events directly related to the availability of natural resources. For example energy shortages that resulted to load shedding, change in weather patterns and water shortages. As a result, civil society is recognizing the need to manage our natural resources more effectively and responsibly. In doing so, we can ensure positive effects on our health, quality of life and even the cost of living. Thus, this study will help people to getting known more about what they will gain if they participate in the environmental campaign. To discover what consumer perception towards green product. In curiosity to identify what are the main components or criteria that consumer especially gen-Y are looking forward in order to purchase a green product. It is true that each and every one of us are special and unique in the way we are, thus, every consumer has their very own perception in purchasing a green product. Different people from different backgrounds may have different perceptions on these products. In addition to that, different demographic groups may have different perceptions to this kind of product as well. Thus, this study will help to identify whether the consumer especially gen-y prefer to buy a green product or not to safe a mother of earth. 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY This study is crucial as there are a lot of green products have been selling nowadays. Obviously, when we talk about green product, the price for that particular item might be so expensive. The study on factors affecting consumer especially Gen-Y buying a green product may allow us to know in depth why are previous efforts taken does not produce as it is thought it would be. Based on the study conducted, motivations towards the environment, knowledge on green product, social norm, awareness and self-image have an impact on the consumer especially Gen-Y buying a green product. Government may need to enhance its program in educating people green product. New and more interesting Go Green program and method is a definite necessity in motivating people to increase their interest/awareness on a green product and indirectly motivates them to purchase it. 1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY The research focus on students in Multimedia University (MMU) Melaka campus and teenagers from outside the campus which comes from various demographic backgrounds such as the faculty, ethnicity and nationality. The focused respondents are a great resemblance on the exact population in Malaysia. 1.6 ORGANIZATIONAL OF RESEARCH 1.6.1 Chapter 1: Introduction Regarding this chapter, it introduce the background of this research such as why do people as a consumer buy a green product. Thus, this will create a strong preference among the gen-y consumers locally and abroad to consume and purchase green products. These sections will explain in details in the of consumers preferences from the Malaysian perspective and as well from the global view for green products. This chapter also recognized the problem statement and the research objectives for this research. Finally, the justification of the research will help to justify the benefits and those who will gain in this research. Chapter 2 : Literature Review A thorough study will be conducted on the dependent variable and independent variables. The main purpose for this chapter is to weigh the pros and cons of the topic and to discuss in details on the ideas and knowledge concerned. In this chapter, every definition of the dependent variable and independent variables will be cited from the journals in order to strengthen every point mentioned. Several of arguments and various points of views from different authors in order to provide a stronger formation of each point can be founded in this chapter. In addition to that, this chapter explains the relationships on several independent variables relate to the dependent variables. 1.6.2 Chapter 3 : Research Methodology Research methodology is usually conducted after the thorough study of literature review. In this chapter, theoretical framework will be form to illustrate the relationships between the dependent variable and the independent variables. Hypotheses or a proposed explanation which were made on the basis of limited evidences will explain the relationships between two or more variables. All the hypotheses stated will be tested together with empirical data. This chapter also includes the description of the sampling data, data collections and as well as the development of the questionnaire for this research. Chapter 4 : Data Analysis After questionnaires are collected from all the respondents, then few tests will be conducted to test on the validity and reliability of the results. The responds of the questionnaires from the respondents are represented by a set of numbers that symbolize their own significant meanings. Whereas the tests that will be carry out are to analyze the responses from the respondents so that it will derive to a stronger conclusion at the end of this research. Chapter 5 : Conclusion This chapter will provide the final outcome of this research. Thus, the final results will be explained and we will be able to identify how the exact hypotheses that formed earlier are hold. Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.1 Environmental quality in Malaysia According to report from Department of Environment Malaysia, 2006, Malaysia experienced a short period of slight to moderate haze due to trans-boundary pollution from neighboring countries. The air quality status in different states differed according to the geographical locations, the industrial and commercial activities, populated areas and the traffic conditions. During that period, Klang Valley area in Malaysia was more prone to air pollution than any other areas and the air quality was only good 23% of the time, moderate 70% of the time and the remaining 7% at an unhealthy level. As a developing country, Malaysia faced great challenge in ensuring a balance between development and environmental sustainability. Urban air and river quality, deforestation, household waste and hazardous waste are some of the serious and worrying environmental problems faced by the country According to The Ninth Malaysia Plan (2006-2010) report, Malaysian government allocated RM510 million for cleaning, preserving and beautifying rivers; RM530 million for coastal management; RM200 million for reforestation; and another RM70 million for the management of wildfire and protected areas to ensure environmental sustainability and resource management. In a global environment article stated that, Solid waste is one of the three major environmental problems in Malaysia. It plays a significant role in the ability of Nature to sustain life within its capacity. Currently, over 23,000 tonnes of waste is produced each day in Malaysia. However, this amount is expected to rise to 30,000 tonnes by the year 2020. The amount of waste generated continues to increase due to the increasing population and development, and only less than 5% of the waste is being recycled.ÃâÃ Rivers represent the lease of life which pulses through the earth. It is a finite and only source of water. In Malaysia, there are almost 1800 rivers. Sadly, more than half of these rivers have been polluted and destroyed. Improper solid waste management contributes greatly to river pollution. Improper solid waste management also contributes to climate change decomposing waste produces methane and production of new products to meet demand emits greenhouse gases and utilizes natural resources. Therefore, a shift towards more sustainable consumption patterns is required. 2.1.1 Concern of environment There are many reasons and factors that affect consumer especially Gen-Y to buy a green product. According toÃâÃ Mostafa (2007), green purchase behavior or environmental friendly buying behavior is the consumption of products that are beneficial to the environment, recyclable or conservable, Sensitive and responsive to ecological concerns. Concern for the environment is perceived to be important in encouraging consumer to participate in green program and also buying a green product. Research finding suggest that, moral concerns determine several curtailment behaviors (Goldstein et al., 2008; Hage et al., 2009). However, studies on the influence of moral concerns on consumer high involvement buying decisions with environmental implications are rare (ThÃ ¸gersen, 2005). This is a problem since overlooking an influential determinant might hinder or delay successful diffusion of environmentally friendlier products and innovations. Consumer identify environmental protection as a pri ority for governmental policies and this interest has led to an increase in ethical production-for both consumer and non-consumer products (ÃâÃ Finisterra do PaÃ §oÃâÃ et al., 2009). Sensitivity to environmental issues shifts consumer behavior towards supporting the growth and diffusion of green marketing and ecologically-conscious consumer behavior including: consumer preference for greener firms, increase in demand for greener products. (Alsmadi, 2008; Finisterra do Pacao et al.,2009) found that greater awareness of environmental problems, increased media coverage, impact of major industrial disasters on public opinion, and the rise of pressure group activities are among the factors driving environmental concerns. 2.2 Green marketing Grant, John.(2008)define the green as a brand that that offers a significant eco-advantage over the incumbents and which hence appeals to those who are willing to making green a high priority. Soonthonsmai (2008) defined a green marketing as the activities that have been taken by firms that are really concern about the environment or green problems by delivering the environmentally sound goods or services to create consumers and societys satisfaction. Other definitions of green marketing as proposed by marketing scholars include social marketing, ecological marketing or environmental marketing. Harrison (2008) proposed green marketing strategy by firms through positioning the environmental benefits of green products to consumers mindset to influence their purchasing decision. Peatitie (2007) and Welford (2000) defined green marketing as the management process responsible for identifying and satisfying the requirements of customers and society in a profitable and sustainable way. In r eality, companies that pursue green marketing encounter numerous challenges mainly from the variability of demand, un-favorable consumer perception and high cost (Gurau and Ranchhod, 2008). The most key concern lies in an understanding of green consumers and their characteristics amd will help firm to enable and to develop a new target and segmentation strategies (DSouza et al., 2008). Dwyer (2009) defined green as the products to be designed, commercialized, and used which are capable of reducing sources of pollution and minimizing risks to human health and the environment. On the other hand, there are product sector speciÃ ¯Ã ¬Ã c examples of research on green buying process, such as food and household products (Vantomme et al., 2005) and clothes (Shaw et al., 2006) 2.2.1 Consumer preference on green product The dependent variable in this study is the factor that affecting consumer preferences for green products. Everyone in this Earth, play a major role as a consumer. Consumers are the main factors that boost a countrys economy. Each and every consumer has their very own perspective and preferences towards what they consume. Consumer from different demographic factors such as background and society may influence their behavior in making decisions while to purchase products. Thus, it is undeniable that consumers preferences and their perspective towards goods and services are hard to predict. DSouzaÃâÃ et al.ÃâÃ (2006a)ÃâÃ found out in their research that consumers perception of green products did not influence by criteria such as packaging, label and ingredient of a product. The important finding fromÃâÃ DSouzaÃâÃ et al.ÃâÃ (2006b)ÃâÃ was that green consumers would rely more on their personal experience in using the product rather than evaluate a green product base on marketers provided information. Interestingly, this finding however contradicts to DSouza, Taghian and Lambs finding they found that consumers are getting environmental information from labels before deciding to purchase a green product. It is mean that, label are important to capture consumer impression to buy a green product. The importance of consumers has lead to many researches to be conducted in order to study on their behavior and attitudes towards what they perceived on the products. Barr and Gilg (2006) was found that green purchasing behavior was the least popular activity alongside activities such as recycling and habitual household activities. However, not surprisingly, green consumers do consider environmental factors when purchasing products, but engaged more frequently in activities such as switching off lights and recycling paper (daily activities). Wheale and Hinton (2007) suggested that amongst the population of green consumers there is a hierarchy of importance of ethical drivers in the purchase decision-making process. The environment was rated as the most important ethical driver during purchasing decisions. The finding fromÃâÃ DSouzaÃâÃ et al.ÃâÃ (2006a)ÃâÃ was if product is lower in quality, consumers would not have intention to buy green products even though they were always reading labels. Furthermore, if product is more expensive, consumers might have intention to buy green products. Therefore,ÃâÃ DSouzaÃâÃ et al.ÃâÃ (2006b)ÃâÃ concluded from their study that consumers were not compromised to lower product quality. However,ÃâÃ Rashid (2009)ÃâÃ in his study stated that eco label is an important factor that would enable consumers to make the right purchase choice if faced with a situation that required their consideration of the environmental impact on a product that they wish to purchase. 2.3 Knowledge and attitude towards environment and green product Knowledge and attitude towards environment are very important to influcence consumer especially Gen-Y To buy a green product. There is a general belief among the researchers and environmental activists that through purchasing environmentally friendly products or green products, products with recyclable packaging or properly disposing of non-biodegradable garbage, consumers can contribute significantly to improve the quality of the environment (Abdul-Muhmim, 2007). The quality of the environment depends critically on the level of knowledge, attitudes, values and practices of consumers (Mansaray and Abijoye, 2005). Attitudes are the most consistent explanatory factor in predicting consumers willingness to pay for green products (Chyong et al., 2006). This means that price is not the main factor in preventing consumers from purchasing green products if they are pro-environment. Researcher also found that Influencing consumer behaviour is a complex and difficult task requiring knowledge of its determinants. The most convincing support of the growing influence of the ecologically-friendly consumer is the increase in the number of individuals that are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products (Bang et al., 2005). 2.4 Social norm and value perception influence consumer to buy green product. Studies have also investigated the effect social influence has affect consumer especially Gen-Y purchase green product.The interest in green initiatives is not expected to emanate only from external impositions and inducements but also from the internal sense of responsibility of a firm towards the society in which it exists. For green issues, such sensitivity is intensified by increasing environmental problems such as global warming and pollution. Such problems may also raise awareness and interest of a firm to behave in a more socially responsible manner and reflect an image of due diligence and commitment to sustainability. Green purchasing is primarily motivated by a certain degree of consumer ecological consciousness. Frey and Stutzer (2006) identify a number reasons behind environmental motivation: intrinsic motivations, altruism, internalized norms and social norms. Social norms lead individuals to take into consideration the opinions of the other members of society when choosing a green product over another: if they think that their acquaintances approve of green product purchase and disapprove of standard product purchase, there are encouraged to buy green products. (Ewing, 2005) stated that social norms are an important motivator of ecologically responsible behaviour. The strength of the normative influence of the consumers family and social groups on purchasing decisions depends on the characteristics of the product (e.g. luxury rather than a necessity). Value perception is the conception one has of oneself. Study in marketing influence on consumer purchase decision on green product, value perception was influencing green behaviours. This agrees to Lee(2008) finding value perception as the third predictor of her study. Apart from behavioral aspects, numerous studies have also looked at the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic variables and purchase green product involvement. Kinnear, T. and Taylor, J. (1973) stated that there has been no signiÃ ¯Ã ¬Ã cant link found between demographic segmentation and green purchase. This could be due to the notion that different groups of people relate to different parts of the environmental agenda Peattie, K. (1995). There have been contradictory results of younger and older age groups concerns about environmental issues Peattie, K. (1995). There is, however, a belief that environmental concern is directly related to a consumers level of education Balderjahn, I. (1988). Based on four surveys, Hines et al. found no relationship with gender. Chapter 3 Research Methodology 3.1 Overview Methodology is a system of methods used in a particular research. Research methodology normally comes after defining the problems and completing the thorough of the literature review. Research methodology which has been implemented to collect, investigate and as well as interpreting data obtained for the testing of the hypothesis will be discussed. Theoretical framework will be formed in this chapter in order to illustrate the relationships in between the dependent variable and independent variables. Besides that, hypotheses were developed and will be discussed together with the explanations in conjunction with the dependent variable and the independent variables. On top of that, plans of the sampling method, data collection methods and as well as the development of the questionnaires are included in this chapter. Finally, the data analysis and the hypotheses testing will carry out to analyze the responses from the respondents so that it will derive to a stronger conclusion at the en d of this research. 3.2 Theoretical Framework Figure 3.1 below illustrates a theoretical framework that shows the relationships in between the dependent variable and the independent variables. Knowledge Country Factors affecting Gen-y consumer in Malaysia buying a green product Attitude Social Norm Value Perception 3.3 Explanation of Framework The preferences of consumers for green products are subjective. Consumer from different demographic factors such as background and society may influence their behavior in making decisions while to purchase products. Whether they have a greater of favor to green products or to ordinary products are just hard to predict. Thus, it is undeniable that consumers preferences and their perspective towards goods and services are hard to predict. The importances of consumers have lead to many researches to be conducted in order to study on their behavior and attitudes towards what they perceived on the products. The knowledge, which is one of the factors that might cause preferences for consumers to make purchases for green products. The first thing that came across consumers mind is the brands and firms that produce a green product. Thus, the brand image of the company has help by providing hints to the consumers in summarizing the information from that certain product. According to Grunert (1993), knowledge of the benefits of a green products use on the environment may have an impact on whether or not that product is purchased and used. Besides that, consumers also prefer to purchase a green product with a lower cost. The attitude is another most influential factor in consumer preferences for green products. Consumers normally are not really aware about our environment issue nowadays. It is because they get less information regarding to our environment situation. Awareness towards our enviro
Monday, August 19, 2019
The Handmaids Tale is a poetic tale of a woman's survival as a Handmaid in the male dominated Republic of Gilead. Offred portrayed the struggle living as a Handmaid, essentially becoming a walking womb and a slave to mankind. Women throughout Gilead are oppressed because they are seen as "potentially threatening and subversive and therefore require strict control" (Callaway 48). The fear of women rebelling and taking control of society is stopped through acts such as the caste system, the ceremony and the creation of the Handmaids. The Republic of Gilead is surrounded with people being oppressed. In order for the Republic to continue running the way it is, a sense of control needs to be felt by the government. Without control Gilead will collapse. The Republic of Gilead is a futuristic world where its citizens are controlled through a group of classes known as the caste system. Allana A. Callaway describes this government creation as a "superficially designed [way] to simplify the lives of citizens by dividing them into classes with clearly delineated standards" (Callaway 49). Each citizen in Gilead is controlled in some way by the caste. The Handmaids are controlled by their large red dresses and eye blinders on their hat. The Daughters wear white to show their purity, the Wives by their home restrictions. The Commanders are controlled by their obligations. Every person working, and living in Gilead has some sort of restriction placed on them. Offred is a Handmaid, who is thought of as the most and least important people in the caste system; "they rank among the most powerful female agents of the patriarchal order." (Callaway 50). The Handmaids have one thing that all the women in Gilead want Ã¢â¬â fertility. Their fertility ma... ...ssed by receiving less salary for more work. Women are seen as sexual trophies, things to look at. Men are seen as dominant, the bread winner and macho. Men and women are seen as sex symbols, and treated as such. If Americans do not begin to cooperate, life could end up much like the one described in The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale; a Republic that takes basic rights away from human beings. A country where the only way to gain basic human cooperation is abandoned and genders are oppressed to make the other more powerful. Works Cited Atwwod, M. (1986). The Handmaid's Tale. New York: Anchor Books. Callaway, Alanna A., "Women disunited : Margaret Atwood's The handmaid's tale as a critique of feminism" (2008). Master's Theses. Paper 3505. http://shcolarworks.sjsu.edu/etd_theses/3505 Version, H. B. (1984). Keith (Ed) Danby. New York: International Bible Society.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Compare and contrast the birth narratives in the Gospel of Matthew and that of the Gospel of Luke. The birth narrative of Matthew begins with a long genealogy of Jesus, which basically shows how Jesus is son of Abraham who is the father of the nation of Israel, and David the King of the Jews. This may not seem important but this genealogy shows how Jesus is connected to the Davidic line. Then we have Mary, who just found out she was pregnant and Joseph decides it is best to divorce her because he wanted to break his union with someone who is pregnant, by someone else. But behold the angel comes down and reassures Joseph that Mary was pregnant by the Holy Spirit and that he should take her back into his house. The angel also said to name the child Emmanuel. When Jesus was born in Bethlehem, and King Herod heard of this new newborn king of the Jews and he ordered that all boys under the age of 2 be killed. The magi gave Jesus the gifts and left. In a dream, the angel of the lord told Joseph to take the child and go to Egypt and hide, Herod then died, and Jesus was safe. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The birth narrative of Luke begins with the announcement of the birth of John, whose mother was Elizabeth. An angel came to Zechariah, Elizabeth?s husband and the angel said that his son John would be in great sight of the Lord that he will be filled with the Holy Spirit even in his mother womb and he will turn many of the children of Israel to the Lord their God. In the sixth month the angel Gabriel...
Shakespeare and Similarity of Gender Roles #2 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Shakespeare, although historically gender biased, can be charged with giving both males and females similar characteristic traits within his plays. This can best be proven using the comparison of Portia from the Ã¢â¬Å"Merchant of VeniceÃ¢â¬ to King Henry from Ã¢â¬Å"Henry VÃ¢â¬ . These two characters, barring gender, show common traits throughout both of these plays. They are also set into similar situations, such as marital issues, prank playing, and the use of disguises. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As audiences are introduced to each of these characters, they are shown both their wealth and intelligence. In Ã¢â¬Å"Henry VÃ¢â¬ , the audience is quickly given King HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"free-spiritedÃ¢â¬ background, but then is told of his miraculous change in demeanor after his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death. The Bishop of Canterbury explains it as Ã¢â¬Å"But that his wildness, mortified in him,/Seemed to die too; yea, at that very moment/ Consideration like an angel came/ And whipped thÃ¢â¬â¢offending Adam out of him,/ Leaving his body as a paradise/Ã¢â¬ ¦Never was such a sudden scholar madeÃ¢â¬ (1.1 27-33). PortiaÃ¢â¬â¢s intelligence is explained best by the literary critic Mrs. [Anna Brownell] Jameson when she states that Portia is Ã¢â¬Å"distinguished by her mental superiority. [In Portia] intellect is kindled into romance by a poetical imaginationÃ¢â¬ (38-39). PortiaÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of humor and spiritedness makes itself known almost immediately when she is first introduced in Ã¢â¬Å"The Merchant of VeniceÃ¢â¬ with her waiting woman, Nerissa. In this speech, which concerns the terms of her future marriage according to her deceased fathersÃ¢â¬â¢ will, Portia artfully and impertinently describes the suitors who have vied for her hand thus far (1.2). Forced marriage is a common bond that Portia shares with King Henry. According to her deceased fathersÃ¢â¬â¢ wishes, Portia must marry the man who chooses the correct casket from a choice of three. She has no say in the matter. Henry, also, has no say in whom he must marry. As King, he must cement EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s bonds with France, and thus make his marriage to Katharine a condition of FrancesÃ¢â¬â¢ surrender. Portia, happily, ends up marrying the gentleman that she wishes. Henry decides to Ã¢â¬Å"wooÃ¢â¬ the Lady Katharine, supposedly falling in love with her. According to Desmond Seward, Ã¢â¬Å" The KingÃ¢â¬ ¦was enchanted by the girl. He regarded her as the only possible bride for him, if contemporaries are to be believedÃ¢â¬ (130-131). A strong parallel that Shakespeare creates between these two characters is their use of disguises.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Texas Instruments Incorporated (TI) is a company based in Dallas, Texas which provides innovative semiconductor technologies to help the market create the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most advanced electronics. Their product ranges from digital communications and entertainment to medical services, automotive systems and wide-ranging applications. The company has been using unique technical skills to fundamentally change markets and create entirely new ones. TI success lies on the use of progressively more complex real-time signal processing technology Ã¢â¬â with advances ranging from the incremental to the revolutionary Ã¢â¬â to literally and repeatedly change the world. TI was founded in 1930 as a geophysical exploration company that used seismic signal processing technology to search for oil. The name Texas Instruments Incorporated was adopted in 1951. In 1953, Texas Instruments went public by merging with the almost-dormant Intercontinental Rubber Company. The merger brought TI new working capital and a listing on the New York Stock Exchange and helped fuel the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s subsequent growth. The introduction of the first commercial silicon transistor made the company entered the semiconductor market in 1954. TI has completed a series of acquisitions and divestitures since May 1996 designed to reshape the company from a diversified electronics company to a semiconductor company focused on signal processing technologies. TI has acquired 32 companies and sold 17 business units since 1996. Its first acquisition was Tartan and the latest was Luminary Micro, the market-leading supplier of ARM(R) Cortex(TM)-M3-based 32-bit MCUs. These activities continue today as the company acquires firms with specialized capabilities and skills and divests product lines that no longer align with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic direction or performance goals. Texas Instruments has a broad and deep product portfolio with 60,000 products having 500 new products per year. TI has systems expertise and technical support present in its 137 sales offices and 30 power design centers worldwide. In 2009, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s revenue reaches $10. 43B. Over the last three years, TI invested $5. 5B on research and development.